英文药名: Elmiron (Pentosan Polysulphate Sodium Capsules)
Elmiron（pentosan polysulfate sodium、爱泌罗、戊糖多硫酸钠）是一种口服用药，能修补受损的，薄的，或是“漏洞的”膀胱表面。这些表面（氨基葡萄聚醣或是GAG层）是由一层黏膜所组成，能保护膀胱壁免被尿液的细菌和腐蚀物感染。
Elmiron（pentosan polysulfate sodium、爱泌罗、戊糖多硫酸钠）是一种口服用药，能修补受损的，薄的，或是“弊端的”膀胱表面。
Oral treatment (Elmiron) and in the treatment of bladder
Oral agents are the treatment of interstitial cystitis in the necessary equipment, but due to many reasons, this may not be the ideal therapy. Most effective drugs from urine, which will reduce the effectiveness of drugs in the human body and medicine sustainability. With oral therapy, there will be unwanted side effects, so often, and antihistamines, antidepressants, pain treatment, and treatment with steroids. At the same time, individuals adapt to different pharmacological, especially in the absorption, metabolism, and urinary tract excluded, these will affect the expected efficacy.
Solve a lot of bladder instillation therapy of oral medication, is the major interstitial cystitis therapy. The benefits of treatment within the bladder is a high concentration directly into the diseased organs, but also that the very poor absorption of systemic side effects bladder is very small. These features will ensure the maximum therapeutic benefit, but also directly at the vital treatment. Direct drug treatment within the bladder, there are bad places, such as the incidence of urinary catheter, the risk of urethritis, a heavier burden of medical expenses (such as doctor's visits, the expense of working hours, catheter costs, lubricants), and some even lead to temporary cystitis (bladder irritation and bleeding increase the phenomenon).
Sodium pentosan polysulfate (Elmiron)
In an attempt to repair the damage which an artificial oral mucosa drugs highly vulcanized polysaccharide (sodium pentosan polusulfate or Elmiron) is selected.
In 1993, Parsons made a three-month-dimensional, two-oriented, with a placebo-controlled study of factors (148 patients), in which 38% of patients received Elmiron treatment, resulting in more than 50% of patients reduce the risk of the phenomenon of pain there, only 18% of patients not only placebo-controlled. Many patients are those of the traditional treatment methods, such as expansion of water, DMSO and Clorpactin, are ineffective group.
This study leads to an extension of the various studies and tests (including several years of voluntary treatment program under the Elmiron data collected). Elmiron in 1996 was recognized by the FDA to require safety dose three times a day, once 100mg, one hour before meals or two hours after a meal. Many patients feel that high doses may accelerate the progress of the symptoms is more suitable and effective. I try to use when beginning a dose of 200mg twice a day, remove the noon of that dose, which involves the patient's capacity problem. Recently, guided by the Bureau of Alza's drug test is going on eight months of the fourth different Elmiron daily dose: 300mg, 600mg and 900mg comparison of efficacy. Hope that this study can detect the most appropriate Elmiron dose and high dose safe dose is. The results show a use Elmiron, patients may need a few months it has a response time of fishes. I have some patients will take eight to twelve months time to bear fruit. Once a response, as long as patients continue taking Elmiron, efficacy will be sustainable for a long time. Many of my patients six to twelve months after the ability to reduce the dose reduced to 100mg daily to 200mg, and there is no loss of efficacy, there is no recurrence of symptoms.
Elmiron success of the experiment has been done within the bladder to reduce the number of patients treated, even if this type of therapy remains an important therapy. I personally feel that Elmiron should be first-line treatment for patients, because it represents the only effective repair damage (GAG layer) of the therapy, interstitial cystitis, which is one of the symptoms. All other treatments are non-special, and can not be effective for the middle of interstitial cystitis problem or cause. I want to emphasize that I do not believe the damage to the GAG layer is the main reason for interstitial cystitis. In contrast, I believe this is the first of the excitation mechanism has yet to clear off the second phase of the extension or "downhill" development.
Most people are able to tolerate Elmiron efficacy, only one to four percent of people have reported side effects (1986 data, total more than 2,800 patients with interstitial cystitis). Mild or temporary include: nausea, diarrhea, headache, rash, stomach problems or pain, lethargy, abnormal liver function, and hair. In 97% of patients in which hair, hair falling only a small twist, but stop treatment if it can stop hair loss phenomenon. The drug quite expensive, about a month to $ 200.
For those who can not tolerate and can not supply Elmiron patients can have the same repair other damaged GAG layer substitutes, such as coagulation factors within the system, liver and bladder, and hyaluronic acid (Cystistat), which later the title, including the treatment of bladder The following will be mentioned in detail. Counter sale of oral Elmiron alternatives are Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate, is a daily dose of 1000 to 1500mg. Although the latter has not been acknowledged by, but the principle, it can still help repair the mucous layer or GAG layer. Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate is often used to repair degenerative arthritis of the articular cartilage at the use.
ELMIRON® is the only oral medication that's FDA approved to treat the pain or discomfort of interstitial cystitis (IC)
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
ELMIRON(pentosan polysulfate sodium) is indicated for the relief of bladder pain or discomfort associated with interstitial cystitis.
ELMIRON(pentosan polysulfate sodium) is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug, structurally related compounds, or excipients.
ELMIRON® has been shown to be generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects were blood in stool, diarrhea, nausea, hair loss, headache, rash, upset stomach, abdominal pain, liver function abnormalities and dizziness. When side effects did occur, they were generally mild and usually did not interfere with continuing treatment. Hair loss, when it occurred, was almost always limited to a single area of the scalp, and it grew back when ELMIRON® was discontinued.
ELMIRON® is a weak anticoagulant (blood thinner), which may increase bleeding.
What is Elmiron?
What is the most important information I should know about Elmiron?
Elmiron may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. Avoid activities that may cause bruising or injury. Tell your doctor if you have unusual bruising or bleeding. Tell your doctor if you have dark, tarry, or bloody stools.
Who should not take Elmiron?
Do not take Elmiron if you have an allergy to Elmiron or its formulation. Do not take Elmiron if you plan on undergoing surgery.
What should I tell my doctor before I take the first dose of Elmiron?
What is the usual dosage?
Adults: The usual dose is 100 mg three times daily for a total of 300 mg per day. Patients receiving Elmiron should be reassessed after 3 months. If improvement has not occurred and if limiting adverse events are not present, Elmiron may be continued for another 3 months.
How should I take Elmiron?
Avoid taking Elmiron with other drugs that have blood thinning capabilities. In addition, do not take with anti-inflammatory drugs.
Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to Elmiron; this medication may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines.
Avoid activities that may cause bruising or injury.
What are possible food and drug interactions associated with Elmiron?
If Elmiron is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Elmiron with the following: blood thinners such as aspirin or heparin; antiplatelet agents (such as ticlopdipine and clopidogrel); and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (such as naproxen and ibuprofen).
What are the possible side effects of Elmiron?
Side effects cannot be anticipated. If any develop or change in intensity, tell your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking this drug.
Side effects may include: hair loss, diarrhea, nausea, blood in the stool, rash, upset stomach, dizziness, bruising, headache, swelling of the fingers, hands, toes, or feet
Can I receive Elmiron if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
The effects of Elmiron during pregnancy and breastfeeding are unknown. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
What should I do if I miss a dose of Elmiron?
If you miss a dose, take it with food as soon as you remember. If it is close to the time of your next dose, skip the dose you missed and resume your regular dosing schedule. Do not double the dose.
How should I store Elmiron?
Store at room temperature away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom.