英文药名：Zejula Capsules（Niraparib MK-4827）
Table 2: Dose modifications for haematologic adverse reactions
Approximately 25 % of patients in the NOVA study weighed less than 58 kg, and approximately 25 % of patients weighed more than 77 kg. The incidence of Grade 3 or 4 ADRs was greater among low body weight patients (78 %) than high body weight patients (53 %). Only 13 % of low body weight patients remained at a dose of 300 mg beyond Cycle 3. A starting dose of 200 mg for patients weighing less than 58 kg may be considered.
No dose adjustment is necessary for elderly patients (≥ 65 years). There are limited clinical data in patients aged 75 or over.
No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. There are no data in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease undergoing haemodialysis; use with caution in these patients (see section 5.2).
No dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. There are no data in patients with severe hepatic impairment; use with caution in these patients (see section 5.2).
Patients with ECOG performance status 2 to 4
Clinical data are not available in patients with ECOG performance status 2 to 4.
The safety and efficacy of niraparib in children and adolescents below 18 years of age have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
Oral use. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water. The capsules should not be chewed or crushed.
Zejula can be taken without regard to meals.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Breast-feeding (see section 4.6).
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Haematologic adverse reactions
In the NOVA study, patients eligible for Zejula therapy had the following baseline haematologic parameters: absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1,500 cells/µL; platelets ≥ 100,000 cells/µL and haemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL prior to therapy. Haematologic adverse reactions (thrombocytopenia, anaemia, neutropenia) have been reported in patients treated with Zejula. In the NOVA study, 48 of 367 (13 %) of patients experienced bleeding with concurrent thrombocytopenia; all bleeding events concurrent with thrombocytopenia were Grade 1 or 2 in severity except for one event of Grade 3 petechiae and haematoma observed concurrently with a serious adverse event of pancytopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred more commonly in patients whose baseline platelet count was less than 180 × 109/L. Approximately 76 % of patients with lower baseline platelets (< 180 × 109/L) who received Zejula experienced thrombocytopenia of any grade, and 45 % of the patients experienced Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Pancytopenia has been observed in < 1 % of patients receiving niraparib. If a patient develops severe persistent haematologic toxicity including pancytopenia that does not resolve within 28 days following interruption, Zejula should be discontinued.
Testing complete blood counts weekly for the first month, followed by monthly monitoring for the next 10 months of treatment and periodically after this time is recommended to monitor for clinically significant changes in any haematologic parameter during treatment (see section 4.2).
If a patient develops severe persistent haematologic toxicity that does not resolve within 28 days following interruption, Zejula should be discontinued.
Due to the risk of thrombocytopenia, anticoagulants and medicinal products known to reduce the thrombocyte count should be used with caution (see section 4.8).
Myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia
Myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML), including cases with fatal outcome, have been reported in a small number of patients who received Zejula or placebo. In the pivotal Phase 3 international trial (ENGOT-OV16), the incidence of MDS/AML in patients who received niraparib (1.4 %) was similar to that in patients who received placebo (1.1 %). Overall, MDS/AML has been reported in 7 out of 751 (0.9 %) patients treated with Zejula in clinical studies.
The duration of Zejula treatment in patients prior to developing MDS/AML varied from 1 month to > 2 years. The cases were typical of secondary, cancer therapy-related MDS/AML. All patients had received multiple platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens and many had also received other DNA damaging agents and radiotherapy. Some of the patients had a history of bone marrow dysplasia.
If MDS and/or AML are confirmed while on treatment with Zejula, treatment should be discontinued and the patient treated appropriately.
Hypertension, including hypertensive crisis
Hypertension, including hypertensive crisis, has been reported with the use of Zejula. Pre-existing hypertension should be adequately controlled before starting Zejula treatment. Blood pressure should be monitored monthly for the first year and periodically thereafter during treatment with Zejula.
Hypertension should be medically managed with antihypertensive medicinal products as well as adjustment of the Zejula dose (see section 4.2), if necessary. In the clinical programme, blood pressure measurements were obtained on Day 1 of each 28-day cycle while the patient remained on Zejula. In most cases, hypertension was controlled adequately using standard antihypertensive treatment with or without Zejula dose adjustment (see section 4.2). Zejula should be discontinued in case of hypertensive crisis or if medically significant hypertension cannot be adequately controlled with antihypertensive therapy.
Zejula should not be used during pregnancy or in women of childbearing potential not willing to use reliable contraception during therapy and for 1 month after receiving the last dose of Zejula (see section 4.6). A pregnancy test should be performed on all women of childbearing potential prior to treatment.
Zejula hard capsules contain lactose monohydrate. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
Tartrazine (E 102)
This medicinal product contains tartrazine (E 102), which may cause allergic reactions.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
The combination of niraparib with vaccines or immunosuppressant agents has not been studied.
The data on niraparib in combination with cytotoxic medicinal products are limited. Therefore, caution should be taken if niraparib is used in combination with vaccines, immunosuppressant agents or with other cytotoxic medicinal products.
Effect of other medicinal products on niraparib
Niraparib as a substrate of CYPs (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4)
Niraparib is a substrate of carboxylesterases (CEs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in vivo. Oxidative metabolism of niraparib is minimal in vivo. No dose adjustment for Zejula is required when administered concomitantly with medicinal products known to inhibit (e.g. itraconazole, ritonavir, and clarithromycin) or induce CYP enzymes (e.g. rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin).
Niraparib as a substrate of efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, and MATE1/2)
Niraparib is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). However, due to its high permeability and bioavailability, the risk of clinically relevant interactions with medicinal products that inhibit these transporters is unlikely. Therefore, no dose adjustment for Zejula is required when administered concomitantly with medicinal products known to inhibit P-gp (e.g. amiodarone, verapamil) or BCRP (e.g. osimertinib, velpatasvir, and eltrombopag).
Niraparib is not a substrate of bile salt export pump (BSEP). The major primary metabolite M1 is not a substrate of P-gp, BCRP, or BSEP. Niraparib is not a substrate of MATE 1 or 2, while M1 is a substrate of both.
Niraparib as a substrate of hepatic uptake transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OCT1)
Neither niraparib nor M1 is a substrate of organic anion transport polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), 1B3 (OATP1B3), or organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1). No dose adjustment for Zejula is required when administered concomitantly with medicinal products known to inhibit OATP1B1 or 1B3 (e.g. gemfibrozil, ritonavir), or OCT1 (e.g. dolutegravir) uptake transporters.
Niraparib as a substrate of renal uptake transporters (OAT1, OAT3, and OCT2)
Neither niraparib nor M1 is a substrate of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), 3 (OAT3), and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). No dose adjustment for Zejula is required when administered concomitantly with medicinal products known to inhibit OAT1 (e.g. probenecid) or OAT3 (e.g. probenecid, diclofenac), or OCT2 (e.g. cimetidine, quinidine) uptake transporters.
Effect of niraparib on other medicinal products
Inhibition of CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4)
Neither niraparib nor M1 is an inhibitor of any active substance-metabolising CYP enzymes, namely CYP1A1/2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5.
Even though inhibition of CYP3A4 in the liver is not expected, the potential to inhibit CYP3A4 at the intestinal level has not been established at relevant niraparib concentrations. Therefore, caution is recommended when niraparib is combined with active substances the metabolism of which is CYP3A4-dependent and, notably, those having a narrow therapeutic range (e.g. ciclosporin, tacrolimus, alfentanil, ergotamine, pimozide, quetiapine, and halofantrine).
Induction of CYPs (CYP1A2 and CYP3A4)
Neither niraparib nor M1 is a CYP3A4 inducer in vitro. In vitro, niraparib weakly induces CYP1A2 at high concentrations and the clinical relevance of this effect would not be completely ruled out. M1 is not a CYP1A2 inducer. Therefore, caution is recommended when niraparib is combined with active substances the metabolism of which is CYP1A2-dependent and, notably, those having a narrow therapeutic range (e.g. clozapine, theophylline, and ropinirole).
Inhibition of efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, BSEP, and MATE1/2)
Niraparib is not an inhibitor of BSEP. In vitro, niraparib inhibits P-gp very weakly and BCRP with an IC50 = 161 µM and 5.8 µM, respectively. Therefore, a clinically meaningful interaction related to an inhibition of these efflux transporters although unlikely, cannot be excluded. Caution is then recommended when niraparib is combined with substrates of BCRP (irinotecan, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and methotrexate).
Niraparib is an inhibitor of MATE1 and -2 with IC50 of 0.18 µM and ≤ 0.14 µM, respectively. Increased plasma concentrations of co-administered medicinal products that are substrates of these transporters (e.g. metformin) cannot be excluded.
The major primary metabolite M1 does not appear to be an inhibitor of P-gp, BCRP, BSEP, or MATE1/2.
Inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters (OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OCT1)
Neither niraparib nor M1 is an inhibitor of organic anion transport polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) or 1B3 (OATP1B3).
In vitro, niraparib weakly inhibits the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) with an IC50 = 34.4 µM. Caution is recommended when niraparib is combined with active substances that undergo an uptake transport by OCT1 such as metformin.
Inhibition of renal uptake transporters (OAT1, OAT3, and OCT2)
Neither niraparib nor M1 inhibits organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), 3 (OAT3), and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2).
All clinical studies have only been performed in adults.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Women of childbearing potential/contraception in females
Women of childbearing potential should not become pregnant while on treatment and should not be pregnant at the beginning of treatment. A pregnancy test should be performed on all women of childbearing potential prior to treatment. Women of childbearing potential must use effective contraception during therapy and for 1 month after receiving the last dose of Zejula.
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of niraparib in pregnant women. Animal reproductive and developmental toxicity studies have not been conducted. However, based on its mechanism of action, niraparib could cause embryonic or foetal harm, including embryo-lethal and teratogenic effects, when administered to a pregnant woman. Zejula should not be used during pregnancy.
It is unknown whether niraparib or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Breast-feeding is contraindicated during administration of Zejula and for 1 month after receiving the last dose (see section 4.3).
There are no clinical data on fertility. A reversible reduction of spermatogenesis was observed in rats and dogs (see section 5.3).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Zejula has moderate influence on the ability to drive or use machines. Patients who take Zejula may experience asthenia, fatigue and dizziness. Patients who experience these symptoms should observe caution when driving or using machines.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
In the pivotal ENGOT-OV16 study, adverse reactions (ADRs) occurring ≥ 10 % of patients receiving Zejula monotherapy were nausea, thrombocytopenia, fatigue/asthenia, anaemia, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain, neutropenia, insomnia, headache, decreased appetite, nasopharyngitis, diarrhoea, dyspnea, hypertension, dyspepsia, back pain, dizziness, cough, urinary tract infection, arthralgia, palpitations, and dysgeusia.
The most common serious adverse reactions > 1 % (treatment-emergent frequencies) were thrombocytopenia and anaemia.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
The following adverse reactions have been identified in the ENGOT-OV16 study in patients receiving Zejula monotherapy (see Table 3).
Frequencies of occurrence of undesirable effects are defined as: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Table 3: Adverse drug reactions: frequencies based on all-causality adverse events*
Description of selected adverse reactions
Haematologic adverse reactions (thrombocytopenia, anaemia, neutropenia) including clinical diagnoses and/or laboratory findings generally occurred early during niraparib treatment with the incidence decreasing over time.
Approximately 60 % of patients receiving Zejula experienced thrombocytopenia of any grade, and 34 % of patients experienced Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. In patients with baseline platelet count less than 180 × 109/L, thrombocytopenia of any grade and Grade 3/4 occurred in 76 % and 45 % of the patients, respectively. The median time to onset of thrombocytopenia regardless of grade and
Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was 22 and 23 days, respectively. The rate of new incidences of thrombocytopenia after intensive dose modifications were performed during the first two months of treatment from Cycle 4 was 1.2 %. The median duration of thrombocytopenia events of any grade was 23 days, and the median duration of Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was 10 days. Patients treated with Zejula who develop thrombocytopenia might have an increased risk of haemorrhage. In the clinical programme, thrombocytopenia was managed with laboratory monitoring, dose modification and platelet transfusion where appropriate (see section 4.2). Discontinuation due to thrombocytopenia events (thrombocytopenia and platelet count decreased) occurred in approximately 3 % of the patients.
Approximately 50 % of patients experienced anaemia of any grade, and 25 % experienced Grade 3/4 anaemia. The median time to onset of anaemia of any grade was 42 days, and 85 days for Grade 3/4 events. The median duration of anaemia of any grade was 63 days, and 8 days for Grade 3/4 events. Anaemia of any grade might persist during Zejula treatment. In the clinical programme, anaemia was managed with laboratory monitoring, dose modification (see section 4.2), and where appropriate with red blood cell transfusions. Discontinuation due to anaemia occurred in 1 % of patients.
Approximately 30 % of patients receiving Zejula experienced neutropenia of any grade, and 20 % of patients experienced Grade 3/4 neutropenia. The median time to onset of neutropenia of any grade was 27 days, and 29 days for Grade 3/4 events. The median duration of neutropenia of any grade was 26 days, and 13 days for Grade 3/4 events. In the clinical programme, neutropenia was managed with laboratory monitoring and dose modifications (see section 4.2). In addition, Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) was administered to approximately 6 % of patients treated with niraparib as concomitant therapy for neutropenia. Discontinuation due to neutropenia events occurred in 2 % of patients.
Hypertension, including hypertensive crisis, has been reported with Zejula therapy. Hypertension of any grade occurred in 19.3 % of patients treated with Zejula. Grade 3/4 hypertension occurred in 8.2 % of patients. In the clinical programme, hypertension was readily managed with anti-hypertensive medicinal products. Discontinuation due to hypertension occurred in < 1 % of patients.
No studies have been conducted in paediatric patients.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via
HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace
IRL - Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971 Fax: +353 1 6762517
Website: www.hpra.ie e-mail: email@example.com
Yellow Card Scheme
Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.
There is no specific treatment in the event of Zejula overdose, and symptoms of overdose are not established. In the event of an overdose, physicians should follow general supportive measures and should treat symptomatically.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: other antineoplastic agents, ATC code: L01XX54.
Mechanism of action and pharmacodynamic effects
Niraparib is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, PARP-1 and PARP-2, which play a role in DNA repair. In vitro studies have shown that niraparib-induced cytotoxicity may involve inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity and increased formation of PARP-DNA complexes resulting in DNA damage, apoptosis and cell death. Increased niraparib-induced cytotoxicity was observed in tumour cell lines with or without deficiencies in the BReast CAncer (BRCA) 1 and 2 tumour suppressor genes. In orthotopic high-grade serous ovarian cancer patient-derived xenograft tumours (PDX) grown in mice, niraparib has been shown to reduce tumour growth in BRCA 1 and 2 mutant, BRCA wild-type but homologous recombination (HR) deficient, and in tumours that are BRCA wild-type and without detectable HR deficiency.
Clinical efficacy and safety
The safety and efficacy of niraparib as maintenance therapy was studied in a Phase 3 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled international trial (ENGOT-OV16 / NOVA) in patients with relapsed predominantly high grade serous epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who were platinum sensitive, defined by complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) for more than six months to their penultimate (next to last) platinum-based therapy. To be eligible for niraparib treatment, the patient should be in response (CR or PR) following completion of last platinum based chemotherapy. The CA-125 levels should be normal (or a > 90 % decrease in CA-125 from baseline) following their last platinum treatment, and be stable for at least 7 days. Patients could not have received prior PARP inhibitor therapy, including Zejula. Eligible patients were assigned to one of two cohorts based on the results of a germline BRCA mutation test. Within each cohort, patients were randomised using a 2:1 allocation of niraparib and placebo. Patients were assigned to the gBRCAmut cohort based on blood samples for gBRCA analysis that were taken prior to randomisation. Testing for tBRCA mutation and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) was performed using the HRD test on tumour tissue obtained at the time of initial diagnosis or at the time of recurrence.
Randomisation within each cohort was stratified by time to progression after the penultimate platinum therapy before study enrollment (6 to < 12 months and ≥ 12 months); use or not of bevacizumab in conjunction with the penultimate or last platinum regimen; and best response during the most recent platinum regimen (complete response and partial response).
Patients began treatment on Cycle 1/Day 1 (C1/D1) with niraparib 300 mg or matched placebo administered QD in continuous 28-day cycles. Clinic visits occurred each cycle (4 weeks ± 3 days).
In the NOVA study, 48 % of patients had a dose interruption in Cycle 1. Approximately 47 % of patients restarted at a reduced dose in Cycle 2.
The most commonly used dose in niraparib-treated patients in the NOVA study was 200 mg.
Progression-free survival was determined per RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1) or clinical signs and symptoms and increased CA-125. PFS was measured from the time of randomisation (which occurred up to 8 weeks after completion of the chemotherapy regimen) to disease progression or death.
The primary efficacy analysis for PFS was determined by blinded central independent assessment and was prospectively defined and assessed for the gBRCAmut cohort and the non-gBRCAmut cohort separately.
Secondary efficacy endpoints included chemotherapy-free interval (CFI), time to first subsequent therapy (TFST), PFS after the first subsequent therapy (PFS2), time to second subsequent therapy (TSST) and OS (overall survival).
Demographics, baseline disease characteristics, and prior treatment history were generally well balanced between the niraparib and placebo arms in the gBRCAmut (n = 203) and the non-gBRCAmut cohorts (n = 350). Median ages ranged from 57 to 63 years across treatments and cohorts. The primary tumour site in most patients (> 80 %) within each cohort was the ovary; most patients (> 84 %) had tumours with serous histology. A high proportion of patients in both treatment arms in both cohorts had received 3 or more prior lines of chemotherapy, including 49 % and 34 % of niraparib patients in the gBRCAmut and non-gBRCAmut cohorts, respectively. Most patients were age 18 to 64 years (78 %), Caucasian (86 %) and had an ECOG performance status of 0 (68 %).
In the gBRCAmut cohort, the median number of treatment cycles was higher in the niraparib arm than the placebo arm (14 and 7 cycles, respectively). More patients in the niraparib group continued treatment for more than 12 months than patients in the placebo group (54.4 % and 16.9 % respectively).
In the overall non-gBRCAmut cohort, the median number of treatment cycles was higher in the niraparib arm than in the placebo arm (8 and 5 cycles, respectively). More patients in the niraparib group continued treatment for more than 12 months than patients in the placebo group (34.2 % and 21.1 %, respectively).
The study met its primary objective of statistically significantly improved PFS for niraparib maintenance monotherapy compared with placebo in the gBRCAmut cohort (HR 0.27; 95 % CI* 0.173, 0.410; p < 0.0001) as well as in the overall non-gBRCAmut cohort (HR 0.45; 95 % CI* 0.338, 0.607; p < 0.0001). Table 4 shows the results for the PFS primary endpoint for the primary efficacy populations (gBRCAmut cohort and the overall non-gBRCAmut cohort). A sensitivity analysis of investigator PFS showed the following results for the gBRCAmut cohort: HR 0.27 (95 % CI*, 0.182, 0.401; p < 0.0001); median PFS 14.8 months (95% CI*, 12.0, 16.6) for niraparib and median PFS 5.5 months (95% CI*, 4.9, 7.2) for placebo, and for the non-gBRCAmut cohort: HR 0.53 (95 % CI*, 0.405, 0.683; p < 0.0001); median PFS 8.7 months (95 % CI*, 7.3, 10.0) for niraparib and median PFS 4.3 months (95% CI*, 3.7, 5.5) for placebo.
Table 4: Summary of primary objective outcomes in the ENGOT-OV16 study
Prior to unblinding of the study, tumours of patients were tested for the presence of HRD using an experimental HRD test, which evaluates three indirect measures of tumour genome instability: loss of heterozygosity, telomeric allelic imbalance (TAI), and large-scale state transitions. In the HRDpos group, the hazard ratio was 0.38 (95 % CI, 0.243, 0.586; p < 0.0001). In the HRDneg group, the hazard ratio was 0.58 (95 % CI, 0.361, 0.922; p = 0.0226). The experimental test was not able to discriminate which patients would or would not benefit from niraparib maintenance therapy.
Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier plot for progression-free survival in the gBRCAmut cohort based on IRC assessment (ITT population, N = 203)
Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier plot for progression-free survival in the non-gBRCAmut cohort overall based on IRC assessment (ITT population, N = 350)
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from validated survey tools (FOSI and EQ-5D) indicate that niraparib-treated patients reported no difference from placebo in measures associated with quality of life (QoL).
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with Zejula in all subsets of the paediatric population in ovarian carcinoma (excluding rhabdomyosarcoma and germ cell tumours).
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Following a single-dose administration of 300 mg niraparib under fasting conditions, niraparib was measurable in plasma within 30 minutes and the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for niraparib was reached in about 3 hours [804 ng/mL (% CV:50.2 %)]. Following multiple oral doses of niraparib from 30 mg to 400 mg once daily, accumulation of niraparib was approximately 2 to 3 folds.
The systemic exposures (Cmax and AUC) to niraparib increased in a dose-proportional manner when the dose of niraparib increased from 30 mg to 400 mg. The absolute bioavailability of niraparib is approximately 73 %, indicating minimal first pass effect.
A concomitant high-fat meal did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of niraparib after administration of 300 mg of niraparib.
Niraparib was moderately protein bound in human plasma (83.0 %), mainly with serum albumin. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of niraparib, the Vd/F was 1,074 L in cancer patients, indicating extensive tissue distribution of niraparib.
Niraparib is metabolised primarily by carboxylesterases (CEs) to form a major inactive metabolite, M1. In a mass balance study, M1 and M10 (the subsequently formed M1 glucuronides) were the major circulating metabolites.
Following a single oral 300-mg dose of niraparib, the mean terminal half-life (t½) of niraparib ranged from 48 to 51 hours (approximately 2 days). In a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the apparent total clearance (CL/F) of niraparib was 16.2 L/h in cancer patients.
Niraparib is eliminated primarily through the hepatobiliary and renal routes. Following an oral administration of a single 300-mg dose of [14C]-niraparib, on average 86.2 % (range 71 % to 91 %) of the dose was recovered in urine and feces over 21 days. Radioactive recovery in the urine accounted for 47.5 % (range 33.4 % to 60.2 %) and in the feces for 38.8 % (range 28.3 % to 47.0 %) of the dose. In pooled samples collected over 6 days, 40.0 % of the dose was recovered in the urine primarily as metabolites and 31.6 % of the dose was recovered in the feces primarily as unchanged niraparib.
In the population pharmacokinetic analysis of data from clinical studies in patients, pre-existing mild (CLCr < 90 - ≥ 60 ml/min) and moderate (CLCr < 60 - ≥ 30 mL/min) renal impairment did not influence the clearance of niraparib. No patients with pre-existing severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis were identified in clinical studies (see section 4.2).
In the population pharmacokinetic analysis of data from clinical studies in patients, pre-existing mild and moderate hepatic impairment did not influence the clearance of niraparib. The pharmacokinetics of niraparib have not been assessed in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.2).
Age, weight and race
Population pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that age, weight and race had no significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of niraparib.
No studies have been conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of niraparib in paediatric patients.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
In vitro, niraparib inhibited the dopamine transporter DAT at concentration levels below human exposure levels. In mice, single doses of niraparib increased intracellular levels of dopamine and metabolites in cortex. Reduced locomotor activity was seen in one of two single dose studies in mice. The clinical relevance of these findings is not known. No effect on behavioural and/or neurological parameters have been observed in repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs at estimated CNS exposure levels similar to or below expected therapeutic exposure levels.
In repeat-dose oral toxicity studies, niraparib was administered daily for up to 3 months' duration in rats and dogs. The major primary target organ for toxicity in both species was the bone marrow, with associated changes in peripheral haematology parameters. Additionally, decreased spermatogenesis was seen in both species. These findings occurred at exposure levels below those seen clinically, and were largely reversible within 4 weeks of cessation of dosing.
Niraparib was not mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames) test but was clastogenic in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration assay and in an in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay. This clastogenicity is consistent with genomic instability resulting from the primary pharmacology of niraparib and indicates potential for genotoxicity in humans.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies have not been conducted with niraparib.
Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with niraparib.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Titanium dioxide (E 171)
Brilliant blue FCF (E 133)
Erythrosine (E 127)
Tartrazine (E 102)
Shellac (E 904)
Propylene glycol (E 1520)
Potassium hydroxide (E 525)
Black iron oxide (E 172)
Sodium hydroxide (E 524)
Povidone (E 1201)
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 30 °C.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Aclar/PVC/aluminium foil perforated unit dose blisters in cartons of 84 × 1, 56 × 1 and 28 × 1 hard capsules.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
TESARO UK LIMITED
55 Baker Street
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 16 November 2017
10. Date of revision of the text