b Once the infusion rate has been reduced for a Grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reaction, it is recommended that the lower infusion rate be utilized for all subsequent infusions. The infusion duration should not exceed 2 hours.
Other non-haematology toxicities
For serious Grade ≥ 3 non-haematologic toxicity deemed related to olaratumab, the dose of olaratumab should be withheld until toxicity is ≤ Grade 1 or has returned to pretreatment baseline. For subsequent infusions, the dose should be reduced to 12 mg/kg for serious Grade 3 toxicities and to 10 mg/kg for Grade 4 toxicities. If a Grade 3 toxicity recurs despite the dose reduction, the dose should be reduced further to 10 mg/kg. In case of recurrence of a Grade 4 toxicity, treatment with olaratumab should be permanently discontinued.
If neutropenic fever/infection or Grade 4 neutropenia lasting longer than 1 week occurs, administration of olaratumab should be temporarily discontinued until the absolute neutrophil count is 1,000 / µL or higher and then the dose of olaratumab should be resumed at the reduced dose of 12 mg/kg. If neutropenic fever/infection or Grade 4 neutropenia lasting longer than 1 week recurs despite dose reduction, the dose should be reduced further to 10 mg/kg.
Elderly (> 65 years)
Data on very elderly patients (> 75 years) are very limited (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).
No dose reductions other than those recommended for the general patient population are necessary.
There have been no formal studies with olaratumab in patients with renal impairment. PopPK data suggest that no dose adjustments are required in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. There are no data regarding olaratumab administration in patients with severe renal impairment (calculated creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) (see section 5.2).
There have been no formal studies with olaratumab in patients with hepatic impairment. PopPK data suggest that no dose adjustments are required in patients with mild hepatic impairment. There are very limited data regarding olaratumab administration in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. There are no data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).
The safety and efficacy of olaratumab in children aged 0 to 18 years of age have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
After dilution in sodium chloride 9 mg/mL (0.9 %) solution for injection, olaratumab is administered as an intravenous infusion over approximately 60 minutes. In order to accommodate larger infusion volumes that may be needed for patients requiring higher doses, the duration of infusion should be increased such that the maximum infusion rate of 25 mg/minute is not exceeded.
For instructions on dilution of the medicinal product before administration, see section 6.6.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Infusion-related reactions (IRRs), including anaphylactic reactions, were reported in clinical trials with olaratumab. The majority of these reactions occurred during or following the first olaratumab infusion. Symptoms of IRRs included flushing, shortness of breath, bronchospasm, or fever/chills, and in some cases manifested as severe hypotension, anaphylactic shock, or fatal cardiac arrest. Severe IRRs such as anaphylactic reactions can occur despite the use of premedication. Patients should be monitored during the infusion for signs and symptoms of IRRs in a setting with available resuscitation equipment. For management and dose adjustments in patients who experience Grade 1 or 2 IRR during the infusion, see section 4.2. In patients who have experienced a previous Grade 1 or 2 IRR, premedication with diphenhydramine hydrochloride (intravenously), paracetamol, and dexamethasone is recommended. Olaratumab should be immediately and permanently discontinued in patients who experience Grade 3 or 4 IRR (see sections 4.2 and 4.8).
Patients receiving olaratumab and doxorubicin are at risk of neutropenia (see section 4.8). Neutrophil count should be checked prior to Olaratumab dosing on Day 1 and Day 8 of each cycle. Neutrophil count should be monitored during the treatment with olaratumab and doxorubicin and supportive care should be administered such as antibiotics or G-CSF as per local guidelines. For dosage adjustments related to neutropenia, refer to section 4.2.
Patients receiving olaratumab and doxorubicin are at risk of haemorrhagic events (see section 4.8). Platelet counts should be checked prior to olaratumab dosing on Day 1 and Day 8 of each cycle. Coagulation parameters should be monitored in patients with conditions predisposing to bleeding, such as anticoagulant use. In a study of olaratumab in combination with liposomal doxorubicin, there was one case of fatal intracranial haemorrhage in a patient who had experienced a fall while on treatment.
Anthracycline pre-treated patients
The risk of cardiac toxicity rises with increasing cumulative doses of anthracyclines, including doxorubicin. There are no data for the combination of olaratumab and doxorubicin in anthracycline pre-treated patients, including pre-treatment with doxorubicin (see section 4.1).
Sodium restricted diet
This medicinal product contains 22 mg sodium per each 19 mL vial and 57 mg sodium per each 50 mL vial. To be taken into consideration by patients on a controlled sodium diet.
Doxorubicin can cause cardiotoxicity. The risk of toxicity rises with increasing cumulative doses and is higher in individuals with a history of cardiomyopathy, mediastinal irradiation or pre-existing cardiac disease. To minimise doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity, the use of appropriate cardio-protective measures (LVEF measurement, such as ECHO or MUGA scan, ECG monitoring, and/or use of cardioprotective agents) should be considered and planned in all patients before the start and throughout the treatment.
Please refer to doxorubicin SmPC for recommendation on cardiac monitoring.
In the phase 2 trial, patients in both treatment groups that received 5 or more cycles of doxorubicin received dexrazoxane prior to each dose of doxorubicin from cycle 5 onwards to minimize the risk of doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity (see sections 4.8 and 5.1).
As doxorubicin is rapidly metabolised and predominantly eliminated by the biliary system, the toxicity of doxorubicin is enhanced in patients with hepatic impairment. Refer to doxorubicin SmPC for appropriate monitoring of hepatic function and doxorubicin dose adjustments in patients with impaired liver function.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Olaratumab is a human monoclonal antibody. In a dedicated DDI study, no pharmacokinetic interactions were observed in patients between olaratumab and doxorubicin.
No other formal DDI studies with olaratumab and medicinal products commonly used in cancer patients, including those with STS (e.g. antiemetics, analgesics, anti-diarrheal drugs, oral contraceptives, etc.), have been performed.
As monoclonal antibodies are not metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes or other drug metabolising enzymes, inhibition or induction of these enzymes by co-administered medicinal products is not anticipated to affect the pharmacokinetics of olaratumab. Conversely, olaratumab is not anticipated to affect the pharmacokinetics of co-administered medicinal products.
Administration of live or live-attenuated vaccines in patients immunocompromised by chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin may result in serious or fatal infections. Vaccination with a live vaccine should be avoided in patients receiving olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Women of childbearing potential/contraception in females
Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while on olaratumab and should be informed of the potential hazard to the pregnancy and foetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 3 months following the last dose of olaratumab.
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of olaratumab in pregnant women. Reproductive and development toxicity study conducted with an anti-murine PDGFRα antibody in mice showed foetal malformations and skeletal alterations (see section 5.3).
Based on its mechanism of action (see section 5.1), olaratumab has the potential to cause foetal harm. Olaratumab is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using contraception, unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.
It is not known whether olaratumab is excreted in human milk. Human IgG is excreted in human milk, therefore breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with olaratumab and for at least 3 months following the last dose.
There are no data on the effect of olaratumab on human fertility.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Olaratumab may have minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Due to frequent occurrence of fatigue, patients should be advised to use caution when driving or operating machinery.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
Olaratumab-treated patients from Phase 2 study
In the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm, the most serious (Grade ≥3) adverse drug reactions (ADRs) observed were neutropenia (54.7 %) and musculoskeletal pain (7.8 %).
The most frequently occurring ADRs were nausea, musculoskeletal pain, neutropenia and mucositis.
The most frequent ADRs associated with permanent treatment discontinuation occurred in 3 (4.7 %) patients of which the most frequent were infusion-related reactions (3.1 %) and mucositis (1.6 %).
Known toxicities reported for doxorubicin, observed in the combination of olaratumab and doxorubicin include fatigue, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and alopecia. Please refer to the doxorubicin SmPC for complete descriptions of all adverse events associated with doxorubicin treatment
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
ADRs which were reported in patients with soft tissue sarcoma treated with olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin in the Phase 2 study are listed below in Table 2 in MedDRA body system organ class, frequency and grade of severity. The following convention has been used for classification of frequency:
Very common (≥ 1/10)
Common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10)
Uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100)
Rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000)
Very rare (< 1/10,000)
Within each frequency grouping, ADRs are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Table 2: Adverse reactions in patients receiving olaratumab plus doxorubicin for soft tissue sarcoma during the Phase 2 portion of a Phase 1b/2 study
b Musculoskeletal pain includes arthralgia, back pain, bone pain, flank pain, groin pain, musculoskeletal chest pain, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia, muscle spasms, neck pain, and pain in extremity.
Description of selected ADRs
Infusion-related reactions (IRRs)
IRRs were reported in 12.5 % of patients and mainly present as chills, fever or dyspnoea. Severe IRRs, also including a fatal case (see section 4.4) were reported in 3.1 % of patients and mainly presented with shortness of breath, loss of consciousness and hypotension. All severe IRRs occurred during or immediately after the first administration of olaratumab.
In the phase 2 trial, the incidence of neutropenia was 59.4 % (all Grades) and 54.7 % (Grade 3) in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 38.5 % (all Grades) and 33.8 % (Grade 3) in the doxorubicin alone arm. The rate of febrile neutropenia was 12.5 % in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 13.8 % in the doxorubicin alone arm. For dose adjustments, refer to section 4.2
In the phase 2 trial the incidence of Musculoskeletal pain was 64.1 % (all Grades) and 7.8 % (Grade 3) in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 24.6 % (all Grades) and 1.5 % (Grade 3) in the doxorubicin alone arm. In the majority of patients the pain was related to the patients' underlying cancer or metastases or pre-existing or concomitant conditions. The majority of these events occurred in the first 4 cycles. The pain can last from few days to up to 200 days. In some patients there was a recurrence of pain. The pain did not worsen with time or during recurrence.
No clinically meaningful difference in doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity was observed between the two treatment arms of the study. The rate of cardiac arrhythmias was similar in both arms (15.6 % in the Investigational Arm and 15.4 % in the Control Arm). The rate of treatment-emergent cardiac dysfunction was comparable between the two treatment arms (7.8 % in the Investigational Arm and 6.2 % in the Control Arm).
In the phase 2 trial, the frequency of haemorrhagic events considered related to any study drug was 3.1 % in either treatment arm. All of these events were Grade 1/2 and were confounded by multiple factors. Three Grade ≥3 events, including one fatal, have been reported across the clinical development programme of olaratumab (see section 4.4).
Toxicity in the elderly
There was a higher incidence of Grade ≥3 adverse reactions, adverse reactions leading to discontinuation and a higher rate of haematological toxicity in the elderly population compared to the overall study population (see section 4.2). The rates of discontinuation were comparable between treatment arms across all age groups.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Ireland: HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, website: www.hpra.ie, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, United Kingdom: Yellow Card Scheme, website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
There is no experience with Lartruvo overdose in human clinical trials. Lartruvo has been administered in a Phase 1 study up to 20 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 of a 21 day cycle without reaching a maximum tolerated dose. In case of overdose, use supportive therapy. There is no known antidote to Lartruvo overdose.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, monoclonal antibodies, ATC code: L01XC27
Mechanism of action
Olaratumab is an antagonist of platelet derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFR-α), expressed on tumour and stromal cells. Olaratumab is a targeted, recombinant, fully human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that specifically binds PDGFR-α, blocking PDGF AA, -BB, and -CC binding and receptor activation. As a result, in vitro olaratumab inhibits PDGFR-α pathway signalling in tumour and stromal cells. In addition, in vivo olaratumab has been shown to disrupt the PDGFR-α pathway in tumour cells and inhibit tumour growth.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is the potential for immunogenicity.
Overall, a low incidence of both treatment emergent anti-drug antibodies and neutralising antibodies were detected in clinical trial samples.
Clinical efficacy and safety
The efficacy and safety of olaratumab was assessed in a Phase 1b/2, multi-centre study in anthracycline naïve patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed, advanced soft tissue sarcoma not amenable to receive surgery or radiotherapy with curative intent. Patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) or Kaposi sarcoma were not enrolled. The Phase 2 portion of the study was a randomised, open label study of olaratumab plus doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone. A total of 133 patients were randomised, of whom 129 received at least one dose of study treatment (64 in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 65 in the doxorubicin arm). Patients were required to have histologically or cytologically confirmed, advanced soft tissue sarcoma and ECOG performance status of 0-2. Randomisation was stratified by PDGFR-α expression (positive versus negative), number of previous lines of treatment (0 versus 1 or more lines), histological tumour type (leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and others) and ECOG performance status (0 or 1 versus 2).
Patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either olaratumab (15 mg/kg) on Day 1 and Day 8 plus doxorubicin (75 mg/m²) on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles or doxorubicin (75 mg/m2) alone on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle, also for up to 8 cycles. Olaratumab and doxorubicin were administered by intravenous infusion. During Cycles 5 to 8 on both arms, dexrazoxane (dosed at a ratio of 10:1 to the administered dose of doxorubicin) could be administered on Day 1 of each cycle at the investigator's discretion to reduce potential doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity. All patients receiving more than 4 cycles of doxorubicin received dexrazoxane. Patients in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm could continue on olaratumab monotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or any other reason for treatment discontinuation occurred.
Demographics and baseline characteristics were quite similar between treatment arms in the phase 2 portion of the clinical trial. The median age was 58 years with 42 patients ≥ 65 years of age. 86.4 % of the patients were Caucasian. More than 25 different soft tissue sarcoma subtypes were represented in this trial, the most frequent being leiomyosarcoma (38.4 %), undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (18.1 %) and liposarcoma (17.3 %). Other subtypes were infrequently represented. Patients had received 0-4 previous lines of therapy for treatment of advanced disease but had not previously received treatment with anthracyclines. The number of patients receiving post-study systemic therapy was similar between arms. Ten patients in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 5 patients in the doxorubicin arm received post-study radiotherapy only. 3 patients in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 1 patient in the doxorubicin arm had post-study surgery only. 2 patients in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and none in the doxorubicin arm received both post-study radiotherapy and surgery.
The median cumulative dose of doxorubicin was 487.6 mg/m2 in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm and 299.6 mg/m2 in the doxorubicin alone arm. The primary efficacy outcome measure was progression free survival (PFS) by investigator assessment. Key secondary efficacy outcome measures were overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR) (see Table 3). The study met its primary endpoint (PFS). PFS according to a post-hoc, blinded, independent assessment was 8.2 months vs 4.4 months; HR = 0.670; p = 0.1208. A statistically significant improvement in OS was seen in the olaratumab plus doxorubicin arm in comparison to treatment with doxorubicin alone in the overall population. The main analysis was performed in the following two subgroups: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and non-LMS (other). Subgroups analysis of OS is shown in figure 2. Difference in objective response rate [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] according to investigator assessment was not statistically significant (18.2 % vs 11.9 % in patients randomised to olaratumab plus doxorubicin compared to patients randomized to doxorubicin respectively).
Efficacy results are shown in Table 3 and Figures 1 and 2.
Table 3. Summary of survival data – ITT population
By investigator assessment
Met phase 2 protocol defined significance level of 0.19
Figure 1. Kaplan-Meier curves of overall survival for Lartruvo plus doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone
This medicinal product has been authorised under a so-called 'conditional approval' scheme.
Lartruvo（olaratumab solution for infusion）
简介： 抗癌新药Lartruvo（olaratumab）注射溶液—40年来首个获欧美批准治疗软组织肉瘤新药2016年11月13日，欧盟委员会（EC）速批准抗癌新药Lartruvo（olaratumab 注射液，10mg/mL）联合阿霉素（doxorubicin） ...