2.2 Titration of SOLIQUA 100/33
After starting with the recommended dosage of SOLIQUA 100/33, based upon prior insulin dose or lixisenatide use [see Dosage and Administration 2.1], titrate the dosage upwards or downwards by two to four units (see Table 2) every week based on the patient's metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results, and glycemic control goal until the desired fasting plasma glucose is achieved. The dosage of SOLIQUA 100/33 is between 15 to 60 units (see Table 1).
To minimize the risk of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, additional titration may be needed with changes in physical activity, meal patterns (i.e., macronutrient content or timing of food intake), or renal or hepatic function; during acute illness; or when used with other medications [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Drug Interactions (7)].
Table 2: Recommended Titration of SOLIQUA 100/33 (Every Week)*
2.3 Missed Doses
Instruct patients who miss a dose of SOLIQUA 100/33 to resume the once-daily regimen as prescribed with the next scheduled dose. Do not administer an extra dose or increase the dose to make up for the missed dose.
2.4 Important Administration Instructions
The SOLIQUA 100/33 prefilled pen is for single-patient use only [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Train patients on proper use and injection technique before initiating SOLIQUA 100/33.
Always check the SOLIQUA 100/33 label before administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Only use SOLIQUA 100/33 if the solution is clear and colorless to almost colorless.
Inject SOLIQUA 100/33 subcutaneously into the abdominal area, thigh, or upper arm.
Rotate injection sites within the same region from one injection to the next to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Do not administer intravenously, intramuscularly, or via an insulin pump.
Do not dilute or mix SOLIQUA 100/33 with any other insulin or solution.
Do not split the dose of SOLIQUA 100/33.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
SOLIQUA 100/33 injection: 100 units insulin glargine per mL and 33 mcg lixisenatide per mL is available as a clear, colorless to almost colorless solution in a 3 mL prefilled, disposable, single-patient use SoloStar® pen.
SOLIQUA 100/33 is contraindicated:
During episodes of hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
In patients with hypersensitivity to SOLIQUA 100/33, either of the active drug substances (insulin glargine or lixisenatide), or any of its excipients. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have occurred with both lixisenatide and insulin glargine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Anaphylaxis and Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions
In clinical trials of lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, there have been cases of anaphylaxis (frequency of 0.1% or 10 cases per 10,000 patient-years) and other serious hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema. Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock can occur with insulins, including insulin glargine, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33 [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Inform and closely monitor patients with a history of anaphylaxis or angioedema with another GLP-1 receptor agonist for allergic reactions, because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to anaphylaxis with lixisenatide. SOLIQUA 100/33 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to lixisenatide or insulin glargine [see Contraindications (4)]. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the patient should discontinue SOLIQUA 100/33 and promptly seek medical attention.
Acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, has been reported postmarketing in patients treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists. In clinical trials of lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, there were 21 cases of pancreatitis among lixisenatide-treated patients and 14 cases in comparator-treated patients (incidence rate of 21 vs 17 per 10,000 patient-years). Lixisenatide cases were reported as acute pancreatitis (n=3), pancreatitis (n=12), chronic pancreatitis (n=5), and edematous pancreatitis (n=1). Some patients had risk factors for pancreatitis, such as a history of cholelithiasis or alcohol abuse.
After initiation of SOLIQUA 100/33, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (including persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back and which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue SOLIQUA 100/33 and initiate appropriate management. If pancreatitis is confirmed, restarting SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended. Consider antidiabetic therapies other than SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
5.3 Never Share a SOLIQUA 100/33 Prefilled Pen Between Patients
SOLIQUA 100/33 prefilled pens must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing of the pen poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
5.4 Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Insulin Regimen
Changes in SOLIQUA 100/33 regimen may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. These changes should be made cautiously and only under close medical supervision, and the frequency of blood glucose monitoring should be increased. Adjustments in concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment may be needed. When converting from basal insulin therapy or lixisenatide to SOLIQUA 100/33 follow dosing recommendations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2)].
5.5 Overdose Due to Medication Errors
SOLIQUA 100/33 contains two drugs: insulin glargine and lixisenatide. Administration of more than 60 units of SOLIQUA 100/33 daily can result in overdose of the lixisenatide component. Do not exceed the 20 mcg maximum recommended dose of lixisenatide or use with other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
Accidental mix-ups between insulin products have been reported. To avoid medication errors between SOLIQUA 100/33 (an insulin containing product) and other insulins, instruct patients to always check the insulin label before each injection.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction associated with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33 [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery). SOLIQUA 100/33 (an insulin-containing product), or any insulin, should not be used during episodes of hypoglycemia [see Contraindications (4)].
Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)], or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia.
Risk Factors for Hypoglycemia
The risk of hypoglycemia generally increases with intensity of glycemic control. The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin containing preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of SOLIQUA 100/33 may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection-site blood supply and temperature [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to coadministered medication [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)].
Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hypoglycemia
Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.
The long-acting effect of the insulin glargine component of SOLIQUA 100/33 may delay recovery from hypoglycemia.
5.7 Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury and worsening of chronic renal failure, which may sometimes require hemodialysis, has been reported postmarketing in patients treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33. Some of these events were reported in patients without known underlying renal disease. A majority of the reported events occurred in patients who had experienced nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or dehydration.
Monitor renal function when initiating or escalating doses of SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with renal impairment and in patients reporting severe gastrointestinal reactions. Advise patients of the potential risk of dehydration due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions and take precautions to avoid fluid depletion. SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended in patients with end-stage renal disease [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Patients may develop antibodies to insulin and lixisenatide, components of SOLIQUA 100/33, following treatment. A pooled analysis of studies of lixisenatide-treated patients showed that 70% were antibody positive at Week 24. In the subset of patients (2.4%) with the highest antibody concentrations (>100 nmol/L), an attenuated glycemic response was observed. A higher incidence of allergic reactions and injection-site reactions occurred in antibody positive patients. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
If there is worsening glycemic control or failure to achieve targeted glycemic control, significant injection-site reactions or allergic reactions, alternative antidiabetic therapy should be considered.
All insulin-containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33, cause a shift in potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space, possibly leading to hypokalemia. Untreated hypokalemia may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk for hypokalemia if indicated (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering medications, patients taking medications sensitive to serum potassium concentrations).
5.10 Fluid Retention and Heart Failure with Concomitant Use of PPAR-gamma Agonists
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33, and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.
5.11 Macrovascular Outcomes
There have been no clinical studies establishing macrovascular risk reduction with SOLIQUA 100/33 or any other antidiabetic drug.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere:
Anaphylaxis and Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Acute Kidney Injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trial of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of SOLIQUA 100/33 (n=834, with a mean treatment duration of 203 days) has been evaluated in two clinical studies (30 weeks duration) in type 2 diabetes patients. The studies had the following characteristics: mean age was approximately 59 years; approximately 50% were male, 90% were Caucasian, 6% were Black or African American and 18 % were Hispanic. The mean duration of diabetes was 10.3 years, mean HbA1c at screening for Study A was 8.2 and Study B 8.5. The mean BMI at baseline was 32 kg/m2. Baseline eGFR was ≥60 mL/min in 87.2% of the pooled study population and mean baseline eGFR was 83.0 ml/min/1.73m2.
Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of SOLIQUA 100/33-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus from Two Pooled Clinical Trials
Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, and insulin containing products including SOLIQUA 100/33 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. The rates of reported hypoglycemia depend on the definition of hypoglycemia used, diabetes type, insulin dose, intensity of glucose control, background therapies, and other intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors. For these reasons, comparing rates of hypoglycemia in clinical trials for SOLIQUA 100/33 with the incidence of hypoglycemia for other products may be misleading and also, may not be representative of hypoglycemia rates that will occur in clinical practice.
In the SOLIQUA 100/33 program, severe hypoglycemia was defined as an event requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions and documented symptomatic hypoglycemia was defined as an event with typical symptoms of hypoglycemia accompanied by a self-monitored plasma glucose value equal to or less than 70 mg/dL (see Table 4).
Table 4: Severe or Documented Symptomatic Hypoglycemic Episodes in SOLIQUA-Treated Patients with T2DM
Defined as an event with typical symptoms of hypoglycemia accompanied by a self-monitored plasma glucose value equal to or less than 70 mg/dL
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions occur more frequently at the beginning of SOLIQUA 100/33 therapy. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions including nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, gastritis, abdominal pain, flatulence, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal distension and decreased appetite have been reported in patients treated with SOLIQUA 100/33.
Administration of insulin subcutaneously, including SOLIQUA 100/33, has resulted in lipoatrophy (depression in the skin) or lipohypertrophy (enlargement or thickening of tissue) in some patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Anaphylaxis and Hypersensitivity
In the lixisenatide development program anaphylaxis cases were adjudicated. Anaphylaxis was defined as a skin or mucosal lesion of acute onset associated with at least 1 other organ system involvement. Symptoms such as hypotension, laryngeal edema or severe bronchospasm could be present but were not required for the case definition. More cases adjudicated as meeting the definition for anaphylaxis occurred in lixisenatide-treated patients (incidence rate of 0.2% or 16 cases per 10,000 patient years) than placebo-treated patient (incidence rate of 0.1% or 7 cases per 10,000 patient years).
Allergic reactions (such as anaphylactic reaction, angioedema and urticaria) adjudicated as possibly related to the study medication were observed more frequently in lixisenatide-treated patients (0.4%) than placebo-treated patients (0.2%) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock may occur with any insulin, including SOLIQUA 100/33 and may be life threatening.
As with any insulin or GLP-1 receptor agonist–containing product, patients taking SOLIQUA 100/33 may experience injection-site reactions, including injection-site hematoma, pain, hemorrhage, erythema, nodules, swelling, discoloration, pruritus, warmth, and injection-site mass. In the clinical program the proportion of injection-site reactions occurring in patients treated with SOLIQUA 100/33 was 1.7%.
Insulin Initiation and Intensification of Glucose Control
Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
Some patients taking insulin glargine, a component of SOLIQUA 100/30 have experienced sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Weight gain can occur with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to SOLIQUA 100/33 in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.
After 30 weeks of treatment with SOLIQUA 100/33 in two phase 3 trials, the incidence of formation of anti-insulin glargine antibodies was 21.0% and 26.2%. In approximately 93% of the patients, anti-insulin glargine antibodies showed cross-reactivity to human insulin. The incidence of formation of anti-lixisenatide antibodies was approximately 43%.
In the pool of 9 placebo-controlled studies, 70% of patients exposed to lixisenatide tested positive for anti-lixisenatide antibodies during the trials. In the subset of patients (2.4%) with the highest antibody concentrations (>100 nmol/L), an attenuated glycemic response was observed. A higher incidence of allergic reactions and injection-site reactions occurred in antibody positive patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Anti-lixisenatide antibody characterization studies have demonstrated the potential for development of antibodies cross-reactive with endogenous GLP-1 and glucagon, but their incidence has not been fully determined and the clinical significance of these antibodies is not currently known.
No information regarding the presence of neutralizing antibodies is currently available.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Medications that Can Affect Glucose Metabolism
A number of medications affect glucose metabolism and may require dose adjustment of SOLIQUA 100/33 and particularly close monitoring.
Lixisenatide delays gastric emptying which may reduce the rate of absorption of orally administered medications. Use caution when coadministering oral medications that have a narrow therapeutic ratio or that require careful clinical monitoring. These medications should be adequately monitored when concomitantly administered with lixisenatide. If such medications are to be administered with food, patients should be advised to take them with a meal or snack when lixisenatide is not administered.
Antibiotics, acetaminophen, or other medications that are particularly dependent on threshold concentrations for efficacy or for which a delay in effect is undesirable, should be administered at least 1 hour before SOLIQUA 100/33 injection [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Oral contraceptives should be taken at least 1 hour before SOLIQUA 100/33 administration or 11 hours after [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Based on animal reproduction studies, there may be risks to the fetus from exposure to lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, during pregnancy. SOLIQUA 100/33 should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The limited available data with SOLIQUA 100/33 and lixisenatide in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with insulin glargine use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with insulin glargine and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
Lixisenatide administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis was associated with visceral closure and skeletal defects at systemic exposures that decreased maternal food intake and weight gain during gestation, and that are 1-time and 6-times higher than the 20 mcg/day highest clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma AUC [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6%–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20%–25% in women with a HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2%–4% and 15%–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Published data do not report a clear association with insulin glargine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when insulin glargine is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations including small sample size and some lacking comparator groups.
Animal reproduction studies were not conducted with the combined products in SOLIQUA 100/33. The following data are based on studies conducted with the individual components of SOLIQUA 100/33.
In pregnant rats receiving twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 35, or 500 mcg/kg during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 17), fetuses were present with visceral closure defects (e.g., microphthalmia, bilateral anophthalmia, diaphragmatic hernia) and stunted growth. Impaired ossification associated with skeletal malformations (e.g., bent limbs, scapula, clavicle, and pelvis) were observed at ≥2.5 mcg/kg/dose, resulting in systemic exposure that is 1-time the 20 mcg/day clinical dose, based on plasma AUC. Decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed concurrent with the adverse fetal findings, which confounds the interpretation of relevance of these malformations to the human risk assessment. Placental transfer of lixisenatide to developing rat fetuses is low with a concentration ratio in fetal/maternal plasma of 0.1%.
In pregnant rabbits receiving twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 25, 250 mcg/kg during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 18), fetuses were present with multiple visceral and skeletal malformations, including closure defects, at ≥5 mcg/kg/day or systemic exposures that are 6-times the 20 mcg/day highest clinical dose, based on plasma AUC. Decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed concurrent with the fetal findings, which confounds the interpretation of relevance of these malformations to the human risk assessment. Placental transfer of lixisenatide to developing rabbit fetuses is low with a concentration ratio in fetal/maternal plasma of ≤0.3%. In a second study in pregnant rabbits, no drug-related malformations were observed from twice daily subcutaneous doses of 0.15, 1.0, and 2.5 mcg/kg administered during organogenesis, resulting in systemic exposures up to 9-times the clinical exposure at 20 mcg/day, based on plasma AUC.
In pregnant rats given twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2, 20, or 200 mcg/kg from gestation day 6 through lactation, decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed at all doses. Skeletal malformations and increased pup mortality were observed at 400 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately 200-times the 20 mcg/day clinical dose based on mcg/m2.
Subcutaneous reproduction and teratology studies have been performed with insulin glargine and regular human insulin in rats and Himalayan rabbits. Insulin glargine was given to female rats before mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy at doses up to 0.36 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 2-times the recommended human subcutaneous high dose of 60 units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2. In rabbits, doses up to 0.072 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 1-times the maximum recommended human subcutaneous dose of 60 units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2, were administered during organogenesis. The effects of insulin glargine did not generally differ from those observed with regular human insulin in rats or rabbits. However, in rabbits, five fetuses from two litters of the high-dose group exhibited dilation of the cerebral ventricles. Fertility and early embryonic development appeared normal.
There is no information regarding the presence of lixisenatide and insulin glargine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Endogenous insulin is present in human milk. Lixisenatide is present in rat milk [see Data].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for SOLIQUA 100/33 and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from SOLIQUA 100/33 or from the underlying maternal condition.
A study in lactating rats showed low (9.4%) transfer of lixisenatide and its metabolites into milk and negligible (0.01%) levels of unchanged lixisenatide peptide in the gastric contents of weaning offspring.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of SOLIQUA 100/33 have not been established in pediatric patients below 18 years of age.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects (n=834) in controlled clinical studies of patients with type 2 diabetes, who were treated with SOLIQUA 100/33, 25.2% (n=210) were ≥65 years of age and 4% (n=33) were ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness and safety were observed in the subgroup analyses across the age groups.
Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when SOLIQUA 100/33 is administered to geriatric patients. In elderly patients with diabetes, the initial dosing, dose increments, and maintenance dosage should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Frequent glucose monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary for SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal failure.
In patients with mild and moderate renal impairment no dose adjustment is required but close monitoring for lixisenatide related adverse reactions and for changes in renal function is recommended because of higher incidences of hypoglycemia, nausea and vomiting that were observed in these patients. Increased gastrointestinal adverse reactions may lead to dehydration and acute renal failure and worsening of chronic failure in these patients.
Clinical experience in patients with severe renal impairment is limited as there were only 5 patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) exposed to lixisenatide in all controlled studies. Lixisenatide exposure was higher in these patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients with severe renal impairment exposed to lixisenatide should be closely monitored for occurrence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions and for changes in renal function.
There is no therapeutic experience in patients with end-stage renal disease (eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2), and it is not recommended to use SOLIQUA 100/33 in this population.
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of SOLIQUA 100/33 has not been studied. Frequent glucose monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary for SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
8.8 Patients with Gastroparesis
Lixisenatide, one of the components of SOLIQUA 100/33, slows gastric emptying. Patients with preexisting gastroparesis were excluded from clinical trials of SOLIQUA 100/33. SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended in patients with severe gastroparesis.
Excess insulin administration may cause hypoglycemia and hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.9)]. Mild episodes of hypoglycemia can usually be treated with oral carbohydrates. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise may be needed.
More severe episodes of hypoglycemia with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. After apparent clinical recovery from hypoglycemia, continued observation and additional carbohydrate intake may be necessary to avoid recurrence of hypoglycemia. Hypokalemia must be corrected appropriately.
During clinical studies, doses up to 30 mcg of lixisenatide twice daily (3 times the daily recommended dose) were administered to type 2 diabetic patients in a 13-week study. An increased incidence of gastrointestinal disorders was observed.
In case of overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient's clinical signs and symptoms and the SOLIQUA 100/33 dose should be reduced to the prescribed dose.
SOLIQUA 100/33 (insulin glargine and lixisenatide injection), for subcutaneous use, is a combination of a long-acting basal insulin analog, insulin glargine, and a GLP-1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide.
Each SOLIQUA 100/33 prefilled single-patient disposable pen contains 300 units of insulin glargine and 100 mcg of lixisenatide in 3 mL of a clear, colorless to almost colorless, sterile, and aqueous solution. Each mL of solution contains 100 units insulin glargine and 33 mcg lixisenatide.
SOLIQUA 100/33 contains the following inactive ingredients (per mL): 3 mg of methionine, 2.7 mg of metacresol, 20 mg of glycerol, 30 mcg of zinc, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and water for injection as inactive ingredients.
Insulin glargine is a human insulin analog produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (K12) as the production organism. Insulin glargine differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine and two arginines are added at the C-terminus of the B-chain. Insulin glargine has low aqueous solubility at neutral pH. At pH 4 insulin glargine is completely soluble. Chemically, insulin glargine is 21A-Gly-30Ba-L-Arg-30Bb-L-Arg-human insulin and has the empirical formula C267H404N72O78S6 and a molecular weight of 6063. Insulin glargine has the following structural formula:
p<0.01; The trial was designed to show the contribution of the GLP-1 component to glucose lowering. The insulin glargine dose in this trial was capped at a maximum dose of 60 units and the dosing algorithm was selected to isolate the effect of the GLP-1 component. At the end of the trial, the doses of insulin glargine were equivalent between treatment groups. The mean final dose of SOLIQUA 100/33 and insulin glargine at week 30 was 46.7 units (for SOLIQUA 100/33: 46.7 units insulin glargine/15.6 mcg lixisenatide). The difference in effect observed in the trial may not necessarily reflect the effect that will be observed in the care setting where alternative insulin glargine dosage can be used.
Patients with missing HbA1c measurement at Week 30 were considered as non-responders
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How supplied
SOLIQUA 100/33 is an injection supplied as a sterile, clear, colorless to almost colorless solution in a 3 mL prefilled, disposable, single-patient use pen injector:
Prior to first use, SOLIQUA 100/33 pen should be stored in a refrigerator, 36°F–46°F (2°C–8°C). Do not freeze. Protect from light. Discard after the expiration date printed on the label.
SOLIQUA 100/33 should not be stored in the freezer and should not be allowed to freeze. Discard SOLIQUA 100/33 if it has been frozen.
After first use, store at room temperature below 86°F (30°C). Replace the pen cap after each use to protect from light.
Discard pen 14 days after first use.
Always remove the needle after each injection and store the SOLIQUA 100/33 pen without a needle attached. This prevents contamination and/or infection, or leakage of the SOLIQUA 100/33 pen, and will ensure accurate dosing. Always use a new needle for each injection to prevent contamination.
SOLIQUA 100/33(insulin glargine and lixisenatide injection)
简介： SOLIQUA 100/33为新复方注射笔剂治疗：2型糖尿病近日，美国食品和药物管理局FDA批准每日一次Soliqua TM 100/33（甘精胰岛素和利西拉来注射）100单位/mL和33mcg/mL用于治疗基础胰岛素不足的2型糖尿病成人 ...