新型眼用溶液Xiidra(Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution, 5%)获美国FDA批准上市，每日使用两次，治疗成人干眼症患者。目前，Xiidra是唯一一款可同时改善干眼症症状和体征的处方滴眼剂
2016年7月11日，美国FDA批准Xiidra（lifitegrast滴眼液）用于干眼症体征与症状治疗，这是FDA批准的首个治疗干眼症的淋巴细胞功能相关抗原 1(LFA-1) 拮抗剂类新药。
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use XIIDRA safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for XIIDRA.
XIIDRA™ (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5%, for topical ophthalmic use
Initial U.S. Approval: 2016
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Xiidra (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5% is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) antagonist indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). (1)
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
One drop twice daily in each eye (approximately 12 hours apart). (2)
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Ophthalmic solution containing lifitegrast 5% (50 mg/mL). (3)
The most common adverse reactions (incidence 5-25%) following the use of Xiidra were instillation site irritation, dysgeusia and decreased visual acuity. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Shire US Inc. at 1-800-828-2088 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov./medwatch.
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and FDA-approved patient labeling.
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Xiidra™ (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5% is indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED).
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Instill one drop of Xiidra twice daily (approximately 12 hours apart) into each eye using a single-use container. Discard the single-use container immediately after using in each eye.
Contact lenses should be removed prior to the administration of Xiidra and may be reinserted 15 minutes following administration.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Ophthalmic solution containing lifitegrast 5% (50 mg/mL).
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In five clinical studies of dry eye disease conducted with lifitegrast ophthalmic solution, 1401 patients received at least 1 dose of lifitegrast (1287 of which received lifitegrast 5%). The majority of patients (84%) had ≤3 months of treatment exposure. 170 patients were exposed to lifitegrast for approximately 12 months. The majority of the treated patients were female (77%). The most common adverse reactions reported in 5-25 % of patients were instillation site irritation, dysgeusia and reduced visual acuity.
Other adverse reactions reported in 1% to 5% of the patients were blurred vision, conjunctival hyperemia, eye irritation, headache, increased lacrimation, eye discharge, eye discomfort, eye pruritus and sinusitis.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no available data on Xiidra use in pregnant women to inform any drug associated risks. Intravenous (IV) administration of lifitegrast to pregnant rats, from pre-mating through gestation day 17, did not produce teratogenicity at clinically relevant systemic exposures. Intravenous administration of lifitegrast to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis produced an increased incidence of omphalocele at the lowest dose tested, 3 mg/kg/day (400-fold the human plasma exposure at the recommended human ophthalmic dose [RHOD], based on the area under the curve [AUC] level). Since human systemic exposure to lifitegrast following ocular administration of Xiidra at the RHOD is low, the applicability of animal findings to the risk of Xiidra use in humans during pregnancy is unclear [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Lifitegrast administered daily by intravenous (IV) injection to rats, from pre-mating through gestation day 17, caused an increase in mean preimplantation loss and an increased incidence of several minor skeletal anomalies at 30 mg/kg/day, representing 5,400-fold the human plasma exposure at the RHOD of Xiidra, based on AUC. No teratogenicity was observed in the rat at 10 mg/kg/day (460-fold the human plasma exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC). In the rabbit, an increased incidence of omphalocele was observed at the lowest dose tested, 3 mg/kg/day (400-fold the human plasma exposure at the RHOD, based on AUC), when administered by IV injection daily from gestation days 7 through 19. A fetal No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was not identified in the rabbit.
There are no data on the presence of lifitegrast in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, systemic exposure to lifitegrast from ocular administration is low [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered, along with the mother's clinical need for Xiidra and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Xiidra.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 17 years have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger adult patients.
The chemical name for lifitegrast is (S)-2-(2-(benzofuran-6-carbonyl)-5,7-dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6-carboxamido)-3-(3-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)propanoic acid. The molecular formula of lifitegrast is C29H24Cl2N2O7S and its molecular weight is 615.5. The structural formula of lifitegrast is:
Lifitegrast is a white to off-white powder which is soluble in water.
Xiidra (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5% is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 ( LFA-1) antagonist supplied as a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly brownish-yellow colored, isotonic solution of lifitegrast with a pH of 7.0–8.0 and an osmolality range of 200–330 mOsmol/kg.
Xiidra contains Active: lifitegrast 50 mg/mL; Inactives: sodium chloride, sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous, sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid (to adjust pH) and water for injection.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Lifitegrast binds to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a cell surface protein found on leukocytes and blocks the interaction of LFA-1 with its cognate ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). ICAM-1 may be overexpressed in corneal and conjunctival tissues in dry eye disease. LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction can contribute to the formation of an immunological synapse resulting in T-cell activation and migration to target tissues. In vitro studies demonstrated that lifitegrast may inhibit T-cell adhesion to ICAM-1 in a human T-cell line and may inhibit secretion of inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The exact mechanism of action of lifitegrast in dry eye disease is not known.
In a subset of dry eye disease patients (n=47) enrolled in a Phase 3 trial, the pre-dose (trough) plasma concentrations of lifitegrast were measured after 180 and 360 days of topical ocular dosing (1 drop twice daily) with Xiidra (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5%. A total of nine (9) of the 47 patients (19%) had plasma lifitegrast trough concentrations above 0.5 ng/mL (the lower limit of assay quantitation). Trough plasma concentrations that could be quantitated ranged from 0.55 ng/mL to 3.74 ng/mL.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Animal studies have not been conducted to determine the carcinogenic potential of lifitegrast.
Lifitegrast was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames assay. Lifitegrast was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovary cells), lifitegrast was positive at the highest concentration tested, without metabolic activation.
Impairment of fertility
Lifitegrast administered at intravenous (IV) doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day (5400-fold the human plasma exposure at the recommended human ophthalmic dose (RHOD) of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution, 5%) had no effect on fertility and reproductive performance in male and female treated rats.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
The safety and efficacy of lifitegrast for the treatment of dry eye disease were assessed in a total of 1181 patients (1067 of which received lifitegrast 5%) in four 12-week, randomized, multi-center, double-masked, vehicle-controlled studies. Patients were randomized to Xiidra or vehicle (placebo) in a 1:1 ratio and dosed twice a day. Use of artificial tears was not allowed during the studies. The mean age was 59 years (range, 19–97 years). The majority of patients were female (76%). Enrollment criteria included, minimal signs (i.e., Corneal Fluorescein Staining (CFS) and non-anesthetized Schirmer Tear Test (STT)) and symptoms (i.e., Eye Dryness Score (EDS) and Ocular Discomfort Score (ODS)) severity scores at baseline.
Effects on Symptoms of Dry Eye Disease
Eye dryness Score (EDS) was rated by patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 = no discomfort, 100 = maximal discomfort) at each study visit. The average baseline EDS was between 40 and 70. A larger reduction in EDS favoring Xiidra was observed in all studies at Day 42 and Day 84 (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Mean Change (SD) from Baseline and Treatment Difference (Xiidra – Vehicle) in Eye Dryness Score in 12-Week Studies in Patients with Dry Eye Disease
 Based on ANCOVA model adjusted for baseline value in Study 1, and ANCOVA model adjusted for baseline value and randomization stratification factors in Studies 2-4. All randomized and treated patients were included in the analysis and missing data were imputed using last-available data. In Study 1, one Xiidra treated subject who did not have a baseline value was excluded from analysis.
Effects on Signs of Dry Eye Disease
Inferior fluorescein corneal staining score (ICSS) (0 = no staining, 1 = few/rare punctate lesions, 2 = discrete and countable lesions, 3 = lesions too numerous to count but not coalescent, 4 = coalescent) was recorded at each study visit. The average baseline ICSS was approximately 1.8 in Studies 1 and 2, and 2.4 in Studies 3 and 4. At Day 84, a larger reduction in ICSS favoring Xiidra was observed in three of the four studies (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Mean Change (SD) from Baseline and Treatment Difference (Xiidra – Vehicle) in Inferior Corneal Staining Score in 12-Week Studies in Patients with Dry Eye Disease.
 Based on ANCOVA model adjusted for baseline value in Study 1, and ANCOVA model adjusted for baseline value and randomization stratification factors in Studies 2-4. All randomized and treated patients were included in the analysis and missing data were imputed using last-available data. In Study 2, one Vehicle treated subject who did not have a study eye designated was excluded from analysis.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Xiidra (lifitegrast ophthalmic solution) 5% (50 mg/mL) is supplied in a foil pouch containing 5 low density polyethylene 0.2 mL single-use containers.
NDC 54092-606-01; Carton of 60 single-use containers.
Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F). Store single-use containers in the original foil pouch.