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ZINBRYTA(daclizumab injection)

2016-06-21 03:28:56  作者:新特药房  来源:互联网  浏览次数:1  文字大小:【】【】【
简介: 2016年5月27日,美国FDA批准Zinbryta(daclizumab)用于复发性多发性硬化成年患者治疗。Zinbryta是一种长效注射剂,其每月可由患者自行使用。Zinbryta为可能需要一种新的治疗选择的患者提供了一种额外的 ...

2016年5月27日,美国FDA批准Zinbryta(daclizumab)用于复发性多发性硬化成年患者治疗。Zinbryta是一种长效注射剂,其每月可由患者自行使用。Zinbryta为可能需要一种新的治疗选择的患者提供了一种额外的选择,FDA药物评价与研究中心神经病学产品部门主任、医学博士Dunn称。
多发性硬化是中枢神经系统的一种慢性、炎症性自体免疫疾病,它可破坏大脑与人体其它部位之间的联系。该疾病是青少年中神经疾病的最常见因素之一,女性的发病率高于男性。对于大多数多发性硬化患者,功能恶化的发作(复发性)最初伴有恢复期(缓解)。随着时间的推移,功能恢复可能变得不完全,导致功能逐渐下降,残疾程度增加。多数患者在20岁至40岁之间经历其第一次多发性硬化症状。
Zinbryta的有效性在两项临床试验中得到证明。一项周期为144周的试验在1841名受试者中对 Zinbryta和Avonex进行了对比。与使用Avonex的患者相比,Zinbryta治疗患者有更少的临床复发。第二项试验的周期为52周,该试验在412名治疗患者中将Zinbryta与安慰剂进行了对比。在这项研究中,使用Zinbryta 的患者与使用安慰剂的患者相比疾病症状有更少的复发。
Zinbryta通常应只用于对两种或更多种多发性硬化药物没有充分响应的患者,因为Zinbryta有严重的安全性风险,包括肝损伤与免疫性症状。由于存在这些风险,Zinbryta标签中带有一项黑框警告,该药物只能在风险评估与减灾策略下,通过限制性配送计划获取。
黑框警告告诉处方医师,这款药物可能引起严重的肝损伤,包括危及生命的及致命性事件。医疗保健专业人员在开始使用Zinbryta之前应进行血液检测,以监控患者的肝功能,这种检测应在每月每次用药之前进行,直到最后一次用药后6个月。
黑框警告还强调了Zinbryta治疗的其它重要风险,包括免疫症状,如结肠炎症(非传染性结肠炎)、皮肤反应及淋巴结增大(淋巴结病)。其它重点指出的警告包括超敏反应(速发型过敏反应或血管性水肿)、感染风险升高及抑郁和/自杀倾向症状。
临床试验中,Zinbryta用药患者相比Avonex用药患者最常报道的不良反应包括感冒症状(鼻咽炎)、上呼吸道感染、皮疹、流感、皮炎、咽喉(口咽)痛、湿疹及淋巴结增大。与安慰剂相比时,Zinbryta用药患者最常见的不良反应是抑郁、皮疹及丙氨酸转氨酶升高。


HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ZINBRYTA™ safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for ZINBRYTA.
ZINBRYTA(daclizumab) injection, for subcutaneous use
Initial U.S. Approval: 2016
WARNING: HEPATIC INJURY INCLUDING AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS and OTHER IMMUNE-MEDIATED DISORDERS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
Hepatic Injury Including Autoimmune Hepatitis
ZINBRYTA can cause severe liver injury including life-threatening events, liver failure, and autoimmune hepatitis. Obtain transaminase and bilirubin levels before initiation of ZINBRYTA. Monitor and evaluate transaminase and bilirubin levels monthly and up to 6 months after the last dose (2.3, 2.4, 5.1).
ZINBRYTA is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing hepatic disease or hepatic impairment (4, 5.1).
Other Immune-Mediated Disorders
Immune-mediated disorders including skin reactions, lymphadenopathy, non-infectious colitis, and other immune-mediated disorders can occur with ZINBRYTA (5.2).
These conditions may require treatment with systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressive medication (5.1, 5.2).
ZINBRYTA is available only through a restricted distribution program called the ZINBRYTA REMS Program (5.3).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
ZINBRYTA is an interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibody indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because of its safety profile, the use of ZINBRYTA should generally be reserved for patients who have had an inadequate response to two or more drugs indicated for the treatment of MS. (1)
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Recommended dosage: 150 milligrams once monthly (2.1)
For subcutaneous use only (2.1)
Train patients in the proper technique for self-administration (2.2)
Conduct laboratory tests at baseline and at periodic intervals to monitor for early signs of potentially serious adverse reactions (2.3, 2.4).
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Injection: 150 mg/mL solution in a single-dose prefilled syringe (3)
CONTRAINDICATIONS
Pre-existing hepatic disease or hepatic impairment, including ALT or AST at least 2 times the ULN (4)
History of autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune condition involving the liver (4)
History of hypersensitivity to daclizumab or any other component of the formulation (4)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Risk of anaphylaxis and angioedema. Discontinue and do not re-start ZINBRYTA if anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions occur (5.4)
Infections: Increased risk of infections. If serious infection develops, consider withholding ZINBRYTA until infection resolves (5.5)
Depression and Suicide: Advise patients to immediately report symptoms of depression and/or suicidal ideation to their health care provider. Consider discontinuation if severe depression and/or suicidal ideation occur (5.6)
ADVERSE REACTIONS
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and ≥2% higher incidence than comparator) reported for ZINBRYTA were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, rash, influenza, dermatitis, oropharyngeal pain, bronchitis, eczema and lymphadenopathy compared with AVONEX; and upper respiratory tract infection, depression, rash, pharyngitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with placebo (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Biogen at 1-800-456-2255 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
DRUG INTERACTIONS
Hepatotoxic Drugs: Evaluate potential for increased risk of hepatotoxicity with concomitant use (7.1)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION and Medication Guide.
Revised: 5/2016
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
ZINBRYTA is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because of its safety profile, the use of ZINBRYTA should generally be reserved for patients who have had an inadequate response to two or more drugs indicated for the treatment of MS.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosing Information
The recommended dosage of ZINBRYTA is 150 milligrams injected subcutaneously once monthly [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4)].
Instruct patients to inject a missed dose as soon as possible but no more than two weeks late. After two weeks, skip the missed dose and take the next dose on schedule. Administer only one dose at a time.
2.2 Important Administration Instructions
ZINBRYTA is for subcutaneous use only.
Train patients in the proper technique for self-administering subcutaneous injections using the prefilled syringe.
Thirty minutes prior to injection, remove ZINBRYTA from the refrigerator to allow the drug to warm to room temperature. Do not use external heat sources such as hot water to warm ZINBRYTA. Do not place ZINBRYTA back into the refrigerator after allowing it to warm to room temperature [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16.2)].
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. ZINBRYTA is a colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution. Do not use ZINBRYTA if it is cloudy or there are visible particles.
Sites for injection include the thigh, abdomen, and back of the upper arm.
Use each prefilled syringe one time and then place in a sharps disposal container for disposal according to community guidelines [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16.3)].
2.3 Assessment Prior to Initiating ZINBRYTA
Hepatic Assessment
Prior to initiating ZINBRYTA, obtain and evaluate the following:
Serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) and total bilirubin levels. Initiation of ZINBRYTA is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing hepatic disease or hepatic impairment including ALT or AST at least 2 times the ULN [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Assessment for Tuberculosis and Other Infections
Evaluate patients at high risk for tuberculosis infection prior to initiating treatment with ZINBRYTA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. For patients testing positive for tuberculosis, treat tuberculosis by standard medical practice prior to therapy with ZINBRYTA.
Avoid initiating ZINBRYTA in patients with tuberculosis or other severe active infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Prior to initiation of ZINBRYTA, screen patients for Hepatitis B and C. ZINBRYTA is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing hepatic disease [see Contraindications (4)].
Vaccinations
Because vaccination with live vaccines is not recommended during treatment and up to 4 months after discontinuation of treatment, consider any necessary immunization with live vaccines prior to treatment with ZINBRYTA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
2.4 Laboratory Testing and Monitoring to Assess Safety after Initiating ZINBRYTA
Conduct the following laboratory tests at periodic intervals to monitor for early signs of potentially serious adverse effects:
Liver Tests
Test transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly and assess before the next dose of ZINBRYTA. Follow transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly for 6 months after the last dose of ZINBRYTA. As shown in Table 1, interruption or discontinuation of ZINBRYTA therapy is recommended for management of certain liver test abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Table 1: ZINBRYTA Treatment Modification for Liver Test Abnormalities

Elevated Transaminases and/or Total Bilirubin
[see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Lab Value(s) Recommendations
ALT or AST greater than 5 times ULN
                                     OR

Total bilirubin greater than 2 times ULN
                                     OR

ALT or AST greater than or equal to 3 but less than 5 times ULN and total bilirubin greater than 1.5 but less than 2 times ULN
  • Interrupt ZINBRYTA therapy and investigate for other etiologies of abnormal lab value(s).
  • If no other etiologies are identified, then discontinue ZINBRYTA.
  • If other etiologies are identified, re-assess the overall risk-benefit profile of ZINBRYTA in the patient and consider whether to resume ZINBRYTA when both AST or ALT are less than 2 times ULN and total bilirubin is less than or equal to ULN.
In clinical trials, permanent discontinuation of therapy was required if the patient had liver test abnormalities resulting in suspension of study treatment for at least 8 consecutive weeks.
ULN = upper limit of normal 
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Injection: 150 mg/mL solution in a single-dose prefilled syringe.
ZINBRYTA is a sterile, preservative-free, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution. 
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS
ZINBRYTA is contraindicated in patients with:
Pre-existing hepatic disease or hepatic impairment, including ALT or AST at least 2 times the ULN, because ZINBRYTA could exacerbate existing liver dysfunction [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
A history of autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune condition involving the liver [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
A history of hypersensitivity to daclizumab or any other components of the formulation. Use in such patients may result in anaphylaxis or life-threatening multi-organ hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hepatic Injury
ZINBRYTA can cause life-threatening severe liver injury, including liver failure and autoimmune hepatitis. In controlled studies, serious drug-related hepatic injury occurred in 0.7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.4% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 1.0% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with no injury in placebo patients (Study 2). Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), serious drug-related hepatic injury occurred in 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients, with monthly monitoring of transaminases and total bilirubin. The incidence of discontinuation due to drug related hepatic injury was 5% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients and 4% in AVONEX-treated patients.
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), 0.3% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients developed autoimmune hepatitis. One fatal case of autoimmune hepatitis occurred in a patient re-initiating ZINBRYTA after a planned 6 month treatment interruption period. This patient subsequently received two doses of ZINBRYTA in the presence of persisting alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) more than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN).
Transaminase and Total Bilirubin Elevations
The incidence of increases in hepatic transaminases was greater in patients taking ZINBRYTA than in those taking AVONEX or placebo. The incidence of ALT or AST elevations above 5 times the ULN was 6% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 3% in AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and 4% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% in patients on placebo (Study 2). Less than 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients had ALT or AST greater than 20 times the ULN. Elevations of hepatic transaminases of at least 3 times the ULN combined with elevated bilirubin at least 2 times the ULN and alkaline phosphatase less than 2 times the ULN occurred in 0.7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.1% of AVONEX-treated patients. In clinical trials, serum transaminase elevations occurred during treatment and up to 4 months after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
Monitoring
Prior to starting treatment with ZINBRYTA, obtain serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin levels [see Contraindications (4)].
Test transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly and assess before the next dose of ZINBRYTA. Follow transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly for 6 months after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
Treatment modifications are recommended based on serum transaminase and total bilirubin values [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
If a patient develops clinical signs or symptoms suggestive of hepatic dysfunction (e.g., unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or jaundice and/or dark urine), promptly measure serum transaminases and total bilirubin and interrupt or discontinue treatment with ZINBRYTA, as appropriate.
Patients with prolonged elevations of serum transaminases should be evaluated for other possible causes, such as infection, and a specialist should evaluate the patient [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Discontinue ZINBRYTA if autoimmune hepatitis is suspected. Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis with systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant drugs may be required. Some patients may need long-term immunosuppression.
Risk of Hepatic Injury with Concomitant Use of Other Hepatotoxic Drugs
Caution should be used when using hepatotoxic drugs, including non-prescription products, concomitantly with ZINBRYTA. Also, carefully consider the need for the use of herbal products or dietary supplements that can cause hepatotoxicity [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
5.2 Immune-Mediated Disorders
Treatment with ZINBRYTA increases the risk of immune-mediated disorders, including autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis. Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), immune-mediated disorders occurred in 28% of patients on ZINBRYTA, the most common of which were skin reactions and lymphadenopathy. In the active-control study (Study 1), immune-mediated disorders were observed in 32% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 12% for AVONEX-treated patients. In Study 1, serious immune-mediated disorders were observed in 4% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with less than 1% for AVONEX-treated patients. In the placebo-control study (Study 2), immune-mediated disorders were observed in 13% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 7% of placebo-treated patients. In Study 2, serious immune-mediated disorders were observed in 0.5% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients and in 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. In some cases, patients had concurrent or sequential occurring disorders while taking ZINBRYTA.
Some patients required invasive procedures for diagnosis (e.g., colonoscopy, liver biopsy, kidney biopsy, lung biopsy), hospitalization for fluid replacement or blood transfusion, or prolonged treatment with systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant drugs. Some of these events did not resolve after stopping ZINBRYTA during study follow-up.
Prescribers should be vigilant regarding emergent immune-mediated disorders. For suspected immune-mediated disorders, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or to exclude other causes. If a patient develops a serious immune-mediated disorder, consider stopping ZINBRYTA and refer the patient to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and treatment.
Skin Reactions
ZINBRYTA causes skin reactions. In clinical trials, skin reactions occurred in 37% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 19% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 18% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 13% of patients on placebo (Study 2). Skin reactions occurred at any time during treatment with ZINBRYTA. Rashes occurred in 11% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to 4% of AVONEX-treated patients, and in 7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to 3% of patients on placebo.  Dermatitis occurred more frequently in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to AVONEX-treated patients or to patients on placebo, and eczema was observed more frequently in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to AVONEX-treated patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Psoriatic conditions occurred in 2% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.3% of AVONEX-treated patients. Photosensitivity also occurred.
Serious skin reactions occurred in 2% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with 0.1% of patients on AVONEX (Study 1) and in 1% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with none treated with placebo (Study 2). One death resulted from infectious complications following a serious cutaneous reaction. In patients with a history of skin conditions, including eczema or psoriasis, use of ZINBRYTA may exacerbate those conditions. Treatment of skin reactions included treatment with topical or systemic steroids or immunosuppressant drugs, including tacrolimus. In clinical trials, discontinuation because of skin reactions was 4% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients. Rashes took a mean of 3 months to resolve, some were unresolved at the time of the last evaluation.
If a patient develops a serious diffuse or inflammatory rash, it is recommended that a dermatologist evaluate the patient before the next dose of ZINBRYTA. Discontinuation of ZINBRYTA may be appropriate.
Lymphadenopathy
ZINBRYTA increases the incidence of lymphadenopathy. In controlled studies, lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis occurred in 6% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 2% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% of placebo-treated patients (Study 2). Onset of lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis occurred throughout the treatment period. Serious events related to lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis included infections, benign salivary neoplasm, skin reactions, thrombocytopenia, and interstitial lung changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. The majority of cases resolved with or without continued treatment with ZINBRYTA and took a mean of 3 months to resolve. Lymphadenopathy resulted in discontinuation in 0.6 % of ZINBRYTA-treated patients.
Some patients with lymphadenopathy underwent diagnostic biopsy. In the event that lymph node biopsy is considered, full diagnostic evaluation should be conducted by a specialist.
Non-Infectious Colitis
An increased incidence of serious colitis (less than 1%) was reported in patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with none for patients treated with AVONEX or placebo in clinical trials. Consider referring patients who develop symptoms of colitis (e.g., abdominal pain, fever, prolonged diarrhea) to a specialist.
Other immune-mediated disorders
A wide variety of other immune-mediated disorders, some serious, have occurred infrequently with the use of ZINBRYTA. These include single organ or systemic multi-organ inflammatory reactions. Many events occurred in only one patient, and the relationship to ZINBRYTA is unknown [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Some required treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Some required several months for resolution after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
For suspected immune-mediated disorders, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or to exclude other causes. If a patient develops a serious immune-mediated disorder, consider stopping ZINBRYTA and refer the patient to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and treatment.
5.3 ZINBRYTA REMS Program
ZINBRYTA is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the ZINBRYTA REMS Program, because of the risks of hepatic injury including autoimmune hepatitis, and other immune-mediated disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
Notable requirements of the ZINBRYTA REMS Program include the following:
Prescribers must be certified with the program by enrolling and completing training.
Patients must enroll in the program and comply with ongoing monitoring requirements [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
Pharmacies must be certified with the program and must only dispense to patients who are authorized to receive ZINBRYTA.
Further information, including a list of qualified pharmacies/distributors, is available at 1-800-456-2255
5.4 Acute Hypersensitivity
ZINBRYTA can cause anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria after the first dose or at any time during treatment. Discontinue and do not re-start ZINBRYTA if anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions occur [see Contraindications (4)].
5.5 Infections
ZINBRYTA increases the risk for infections. In controlled trials, infections occurred in 65% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 57% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 50% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 44% of patients taking placebo (Study 2). Serious infections occurred in 4% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 2% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 3% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with none on placebo (Study 2).
The most common types of infections observed were upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and viral infections.
In clinical trials, cases of tuberculosis occurred in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Evaluate high-risk patients for tuberculosis infection prior to initiating treatment with ZINBRYTA. For patients testing positive for tuberculosis, treat by standard medical practice prior to therapy with ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Avoid initiating ZINBRYTA in patients with severe active infection until the infection is fully controlled. If serious infection develops, consider withholding treatment with ZINBRYTA until the infection resolves.
Vaccinations
The safety of immunization with live viral vaccines during treatment with ZINBRYTA has not been studied. Vaccination with live vaccines is not recommended during treatment and up to 4 months after discontinuation of ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
5.6 Depression and Suicide
Depression-related events occurred more frequently in patients receiving ZINBRYTA than in patients receiving AVONEX or placebo. In controlled trials, depression-related events occurred in 10% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 8% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 2% of patients taking placebo (Study 2). In Study 1, serious events related to depression, including suicidal ideation or suicide attempt, occurred in 0.4% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients and in 0.7% of AVONEX-treated patients. None occurred in Study 2 (placebo-controlled).
Administer ZINBRYTA with caution to patients with previous or current depressive disorders. Advise patients and/or caregivers to immediately report any symptoms of new or worsening depression and/or suicidal ideation to their healthcare provider.
If a patient develops severe depression and/or suicidal ideation, consider discontinuation of ZINBRYTA. 
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
Hepatic Injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Immune-Mediated Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Acute Hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Depression and Suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of ZINBRYTA cannot be directly compared with rates in clinical trials of other drugs and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In all controlled and uncontrolled trials performed in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, 2236 patients received ZINBRYTA for a total of 5214 person-years. Of these patients, 1576 received ZINBRYTA for at least 1 year, 1259 for at least 2 years, and 888 for at least 3 years. In the controlled studies, approximately 67% were female, 92% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 36 years at study entry.
In the active-controlled study (Study 1), 919 patients received ZINBRYTA (150 mg SQ, every 4 weeks) and 922 patients received AVONEX (interferon beta-1a 30 mcg IM, weekly) for a minimum of 2 years and up to 3 years, with 1952 person-years of exposure to ZINBRYTA; the median length of treatment was approximately 27 months. The adverse reactions from Study 1 are presented in Table 2.
In the placebo-controlled study (Study 2), 417 patients received ZINBRYTA with 423 person-years of exposure, of which 208 received 150 mg, and 204 received placebo every 4 weeks for up to 1 year; the median length of treatment was approximately 11 months. The adverse reactions from Study 2 are presented in Table 3.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence at least 5% and at least 2% higher incidence than comparator) that occurred in ZINBRYTA-treated patients were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, rash, influenza, dermatitis, oropharyngeal pain, bronchitis, eczema, and lymphadenopathy compared with AVONEX; and upper respiratory tract infection, depression, rash, pharyngitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with placebo.
The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation in up to 5% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA were hepatic events including elevations of serum transaminases and cutaneous events.
Patients were excluded from the clinical studies for abnormal laboratory values including hemoglobin, complete blood count with differential, serum transaminases, or serum creatinine. Patients were excluded if they had a history of seizure disorder or of having a seizure within 6 months of beginning the study, or suicidal ideation or severe depression within 3 months of beginning the study. During Study 1, concomitant use of ZINBRYTA with the hepatotoxic drugs valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, isoniazid, and propylthiouracil was not permitted except in patients already receiving the drugs at the time of study entry.
In clinical studies, serum chemistry was evaluated at baseline and monthly. Hematology was evaluated at baseline, monthly for 6 months, and then every 3 months. Thyroid function was measured at baseline and every 6 months.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Adults with RMS with an Incidence at Least 2% More for ZINBRYTA 150 mg SQ Every 4 Weeks than AVONEX 30 mcg IM Once Weekly (Study 1) 

Adverse Reaction ZINBRYTA
150 mg SQ
Every 4 Weeks
N=919
%
AVONEX
30 mcg IM
Once Weekly
N=922
%
Nasopharyngitis 25 21
Upper respiratory tract infection 1 17 14
Rash2 11 4
Influenza 9 6
Dermatitis 3 9 2
Oropharyngeal pain 8 4
Bronchitis 7 5
Eczema 4 5 2
Lymphadenopathy 5 <1
Tonsillitis 4 2
Acne 3 <1
1 includes upper respiratory tract infection and viral upper respiratory tract infection
2 includes erythematous rash, exfoliative rash, macular rash, maculopapular rash, papular rash, pruritic rash, rash, and vesicular rash
3 includes allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis
4 includes dyshidrotic eczema, eczema, and nummular eczema
Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Adults with RMS with an Incidence at Least 2% More for ZINBRYTA 150 mg SQ Every 4 Weeks than Placebo (Study 2)

Adverse Reaction ZINBRYTA
150 mg SQ
Every 4 Weeks
N=208
%
Placebo


N=204
%
Upper respiratory tract infection 9 7
Depression1 7 2
Rash2 7 3
Pharyngitis 6 4
Increased ALT 5 2
Rhinitis 4 1
Anemia 3 <1
Pyrexia 3 <1
Increased AST 3 <1
Dermatitis 3 3 <1
1 includes depressed mood and depression
2 includes erythematous rash, exfoliative rash, macular rash, maculopapular rash, papular rash, pruritic rash, rash, and vesicular rash
3 includes allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis
Other clinically relevant adverse reactions observed at <2% difference included abnormal liver function test, decreased lymphocyte count, diarrhea, dry skin, erythema, folliculitis, increased hepatic enzyme, laryngitis, lymphadenitis, pneumonia, pruritus, psoriasis, respiratory tract infection, skin exfoliation, toxic skin eruption, and viral infection.
Seizures
In Study 1, seizures occurred in 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients, compared with 0.3% of AVONEX-treated patients. In Study 2, no seizures occurred in either treatment group.
Immune-mediated disorders
Types of immune-mediated or autoimmune conditions that were observed in 2 or more ZINBRYTA-treated patients include type I diabetes, celiac disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancreatitis, glomerulonephritis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, and sialadenitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The relationship of these events to ZINBRYTA is unknown.
Breast Cancer
In controlled studies, 1 ZINBRYTA-treated woman developed breast cancer compared with none in the AVONEX-treated group. Across all controlled and open-label clinical studies, 8 of 1485 (0.5%) ZINBRYTA-treated women developed breast cancer, and 1 of 751 (0.1%) ZINBRYTA-treated men developed breast cancer. It is unclear whether this represents an incidence increase over background rate.
6.2 Immunogenicity
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. In Study 1, patients were tested for anti-drug (daclizumab) antibodies at Week 4 and approximately every 3 months thereafter. Anti-drug antibodies and neutralizing antibodies were observed in 19% (175/913) and 8% (71/913) of patients, respectively. Anti-drug antibody responses were transient in 12% (110/913) of patients and persistent in 7% (65/913) of patients. Anti-drug and neutralizing antibody responses predominantly occurred during the first year of treatment, and their frequency declined with continued ZINBRYTA treatment.
In patients with neutralizing antibodies, daclizumab clearance was increased on average by 19% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There was no apparent correlation of anti-drug antibody or neutralizing antibody development to clinical response, adverse reactions, or pharmacodynamic profile of ZINBRYTA.
The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to daclizumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Hepatotoxic Drugs
Caution should be used when using hepatotoxic drugs, including non-prescription products, concomitantly with ZINBRYTA. Carefully consider the need for the use of herbal products or dietary supplements that can cause hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.1 Pregnancy
Risk Summary
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with use of ZINBRYTA in pregnant women.
Administration of ZINBRYTA to monkeys during gestation resulted in embryofetal death and reduced fetal growth at maternal exposures greater than 30 times that expected clinically [see Data]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Data
Animal Data
In monkeys administered ZINBRYTA (0, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) weekly by subcutaneous injection during organogenesis (gestation days 20 through 50), there was a decrease in fetal body weight and crown-rump length, and an increase in embryofetal death at the highest dose tested. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the no-effect dose of 50 mg/kg was approximately 30 times that in humans at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg.
In monkeys administered ZINBRYTA (50 mg/kg) weekly by subcutaneous injection from gestation day 50 to birth, there were no effects on pre- or postnatal development for up to 6 months after birth. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the administered dose was 55 times that in humans at the RHD.
8.2 Lactation
Risk Summary
There are no data on the presence of daclizumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Daclizumab was excreted in the milk of ZINBRYTA-treated monkeys.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ZINBRYTA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ZINBRYTA or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of ZINBRYTA in patients less than 17 years old have not been established. Use of ZINBRYTA is not recommended in pediatric patients due to the risks of hepatic injury and immune-mediated disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of ZINBRYTA did not include a sufficient number of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
Clinical trials did not include patients with ALT or AST more than two times the ULN. Patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment may be at increased risk for hepatotoxicity from ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4), Contraindications (4), and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
11 DESCRIPTION
Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2Rα, CD25). Daclizumab is composed of two humanized gamma-1 heavy chains and two humanized kappa light chains and has a molecular weight of approximately 144 kilodaltons (kDa).
ZINBRYTA injection is supplied as a sterile, preservative-free, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution for subcutaneous use in a single-dose prefilled syringe. Each 1 mL prefilled syringe contains 150 mg daclizumab; polysorbate 80, USP (0.3 mg); sodium chloride (5.84 mg); sodium succinate, anhydrous (5.94 mg); succinic acid (0.35 mg); and Water for Injection, USP. The pH is 6.0.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
The precise mechanism by which daclizumab exerts therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis is unknown but is presumed to involve modulation of IL-2 mediated activation of lymphocytes through binding to CD25, a subunit of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor.
12.2 Pharmacodynamics
During ZINBRYTA treatment, mean cell counts for the major immune subsets (T, B, and NK cells) remained within normal ranges. Total lymphocyte, T and B cell counts decreased less than 10% from baseline during the first year of treatment. Total lymphocyte counts returned to baseline levels approximately 8-12 weeks after the last dose of ZINBRYTA (150 mg).
12.3 Pharmacokinetics
The pharmacokinetics of ZINBRYTA are similar for healthy volunteers and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Absorption
Following a single subcutaneous injection of ZINBRYTA, the maximum concentration occurred between 5 and 7 days. At steady state, daclizumab mean maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 30 μg/mL, minimum serum concentration (Cmin) was 15 μg/mL, and area under the serum concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUCtau) values were approximately 640 μg-days per mL. The absolute bioavailability of 150 mg subcutaneous daclizumab was approximately 90%.
After administration of ZINBRYTA 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks, serum daclizumab concentrations reached steady state by the fourth dose. Daclizumab accumulated to a level approximately 2.5-fold compared with a single dose.
The coefficient of variation between individual patients was approximately 35-40% for exposure (Cmax and AUC) and 27-51% for clearance and volume of distribution.
Distribution
In multiple sclerosis patients taking 150 mg subcutaneous doses of ZINBRYTA every 4 weeks, the estimated steady-state volume of distribution of daclizumab was approximately 6.34 liters.
Metabolism and Elimination
Because it is a protein, daclizumab is expected to undergo catabolism to peptides and amino acids in the same manner as endogenous IgG proteins without renal elimination. The estimated clearance of daclizumab is 0.212 liters per day with an elimination half-life of 21 days. Daclizumab clearance in patients who developed neutralizing antibodies was 19% higher [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Specific Populations
Clinical studies did not identify significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between Japanese and Caucasian healthy volunteers. Covariate analyses did not identify significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters based on gender, age, or weight for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
Drug Interaction Studies
ZINBRYTA 150 mg administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks in patients with multiple sclerosis did not significantly affect the systemic exposure of concomitantly administered oral midazolam (CYP3A substrate), warfarin (CYP2C9 substrate), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 substrate), omeprazole (CYP2C19 substrate), or caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate).
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis
The carcinogenic potential of ZINBRYTA has not been assessed.
Mutagenesis
Genetic toxicology studies of ZINBRYTA have not been conducted.
Impairment of Fertility
ZINBRYTA (0, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) administered biweekly by subcutaneous injection to monkeys had no adverse effect on male (sperm motility, concentration, and morphology or testosterone levels) or female (estrus cycle length or estradiol/progesterone patterns) fertility endpoints. At the highest dose tested, plasma exposures (AUC) in males and females were 100 and 85 times, respectively, that at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg.
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
There was a dose-dependent increase in microglial aggregates in the brain and spinal cord of monkeys at subcutaneous doses greater than 10 mg/kg administered biweekly for up to 39 weeks. Microglial aggregates were, in some animals, associated with microhemorrhage; however, no evidence of neuronal injury was observed. There was evidence of reversibility by 12 weeks after the last dose.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
The efficacy of ZINBRYTA was demonstrated in two randomized, double-blind, controlled studies (Study 1 and Study 2). Both studies evaluated 150 mg of subcutaneous ZINBRYTA taken once every four weeks in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).
Study 1: Active-Controlled Trial in RMS
Study 1 compared ZINBRYTA to 30 mcg weekly intramuscular doses of AVONEX in 1841 patients. The study included RMS patients who had either: 1) at least 2 relapses during the prior 3 years and at least one relapse in the year prior to randomization; or 2) one or more clinical relapses and one or more new T1 gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing or T2 hyperintense MRI lesions within the prior 2 years with at least one of these events in the prior 12 months. Patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis or an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score greater than 5 were excluded. Treatment continued for up to 144 weeks until the last enrolled patient completed 96 weeks of treatment. Clinical assessments were to occur every 12 weeks and after relapse events. MRI scans were performed at Week 24 and Week 96.
The primary outcome measure of Study 1 was the annualized relapse rate (ARR). Additional outcome measures included the proportion of patients relapsed, the proportion of patients who experienced confirmed disability progression, and the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions. Confirmed disability progression was defined as at least a 1 point increase from baseline EDSS (1.5 point increase for patients with baseline EDSS of 0) sustained for 12 weeks.
In Study 1, randomization assigned 919 patients to ZINBRYTA and 922 patients to AVONEX; 71% of ZINBRYTA- and 70% of AVONEX-treated patients completed at least 96 weeks of treatment with the assigned drug. At baseline, the mean age of patients was 36 years, the mean disease duration since diagnosis was 4.2 years, the mean EDSS score was 2.5, and the mean number of relapses in the prior year was 1.6. At baseline, 68% of patients were female, 46% of patients had MRI scans with T1 Gd-enhancing lesions and 41% of patients had previously taken one or more non-steroid treatments for MS.
ZINBRYTA had a statistically significant effect on the annualized relapse rate and on the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions. There was no statistically significant effect on 12-week confirmed disability progression.
Results for Study 1 are shown in Table 4 and Figure 1, below.
Table 4: Clinical and MRI Results of Study 1 

ZINBRYTA
150 mg SQ
Every 4 Weeks
N=919
AVONEX
30 mcg IM
Once Weekly
N=922
p-value

1Values refer to results up to144 weeks

2 MRI analysis used evaluable dataset and values reflect results at 96 weeks

Clinical Results1
Annualized relapse rate
0.216
0.393
     Relative reduction
45%
<0.0001
Proportion Relapse Free 67% 51%
Proportion with 12-week confirmed disability progression 16% 20% 0.16
MRI Results2
Mean number of new or newly enlarging
     T2 hyperintense lesions
4.31 9.44
Relative reduction 54% <0.0001
Figure 1: Study 1 Percentage of Relapse-Free Patients


In a subgroup analysis of Study 1, a reduction was observed compared with AVONEX on annualized relapse rate across patient subgroups (based on gender, age, prior multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapy, and disease activity levels).
Study 2: Placebo-Controlled Trial in RMS
Study 2 compared ZINBRYTA to placebo in 412 patients. The study included RMS patients who had experienced at least one relapse in the year prior to randomization or who had one or more T1 Gd-enhancing MRI lesions within 6 weeks of randomization. Patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis or an EDSS score greater than 5 were excluded. Treatment duration was 52 weeks. Clinical assessments were to occur every 12 weeks and after relapse events. MRI scans were performed at weeks 24, 36, and 52 in all patients and every 4 weeks in a subset of patients.
The primary outcome measure of Study 2 was the annualized relapse rate (ARR) at Week 52. Additional outcome measures included new T1 Gd-enhancing lesions between Week 8 and Week 24, the proportion of patients relapsed, the proportion of patients who experienced 12-week confirmed disability progression (as defined in Study 1) and the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions.
In Study 2, randomization assigned 208 patients to receive ZINBRYTA (150 mg) and 204 patients to receive placebo; 91% of ZINBRYTA patients and 91% of placebo patients completed treatment. At baseline, the mean age of patients was 36 years, the mean disease duration since diagnosis was 4.3 years, the mean EDSS score was 2.8, and the mean number of relapses in the prior year was 1.4. At baseline, 65% of patients were female, 48% of patients had MRI scans with T1 Gd-enhancing lesions and 21% of patients had previously taken one or more non-steroid treatments for MS.
ZINBRYTA had a statistically significant effect on the annualized relapse rate, the proportion of patients relapse free, the number of new T1 Gd-enhancing lesions, and the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions. The results for Study 2 are shown in Table 5.
Table 5: Clinical and MRI Results of Study 2 

ZINBRYTA
150 mg SQ
Every 4 Weeks
N=208

Placebo

N=204

p-value

1 Values refer to results at 52 weeks

2 MRI analyses used evaluable dataset for each endpoint; T1 Gd-enhancing: MRI intensive population, between 8-24 weeks

3 The proportion of patients with 12-week confirmed disability progression was an exploratory measure in Study 2. As the proportion of patients with 12-week confirmed disability was used as a key secondary outcome in Study 1, and is one of the main outcome measures in MS studies, the disability progression results are presented for Study 2. The nominal p value for that comparison, p=0.02, is not adjusted for multiple comparisons.

Clinical Results1
Annualized relapse rate
0.211
0.458
     Relative reduction
54%
<0.0001
Proportion Relapse Free 81% 64%
Proportion with 12-week confirmed disability progression3
6%
13%

Relative risk reduction 57%
MRI Results2
Mean number of new or newly enlarging


     T2 hyperintense lesions1
2.4
8.1
Relative reduction 70% <0.0001
Mean number of new T1 Gd-enhancing


     lesions
1.46
4.79
Relative reduction 69% <0.0001
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied
ZINBRYTA injection is a sterile, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution for subcutaneous injection supplied in a single-dose prefilled syringe. The rubber plunger stopper and rigid needle shield are not made with natural rubber latex. A 29 gauge, 0.5 inch staked needle is pre-affixed to the syringe. The ZINBRYTA prefilled syringe is available in a carton containing a single-dose prefilled syringe providing 1 mL of 150 mg/mL of daclizumab. The NDC is 0074-0033-01.
16.2 Storage and Handling
Store in a refrigerator between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) in the original carton to protect from light. Do not freeze or expose to temperatures above 30°C (86°F). Discard if frozen.
If refrigeration is unavailable, ZINBRYTA may be stored protected from light up to 30°C (86°F) for a period up to 30 days. Do not place ZINBRYTA back into the refrigerator after allowing it to warm to room temperature. Discard after 30 days without refrigeration.
16.3 Instructions for Disposal
Dispose in a sharps container or other hard plastic or metal sealable container. Always follow local regulations for disposal.
https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=6ced5f68-cb45-44d2-b88a-f5edd2761137

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