ULN = upper limit of normal
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Injection: 150 mg/mL solution in a single-dose prefilled syringe.
ZINBRYTA is a sterile, preservative-free, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution.
ZINBRYTA is contraindicated in patients with:
Pre-existing hepatic disease or hepatic impairment, including ALT or AST at least 2 times the ULN, because ZINBRYTA could exacerbate existing liver dysfunction [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
A history of autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune condition involving the liver [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
A history of hypersensitivity to daclizumab or any other components of the formulation. Use in such patients may result in anaphylaxis or life-threatening multi-organ hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hepatic Injury
ZINBRYTA can cause life-threatening severe liver injury, including liver failure and autoimmune hepatitis. In controlled studies, serious drug-related hepatic injury occurred in 0.7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.4% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 1.0% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with no injury in placebo patients (Study 2). Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), serious drug-related hepatic injury occurred in 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients, with monthly monitoring of transaminases and total bilirubin. The incidence of discontinuation due to drug related hepatic injury was 5% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients and 4% in AVONEX-treated patients.
Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), 0.3% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients developed autoimmune hepatitis. One fatal case of autoimmune hepatitis occurred in a patient re-initiating ZINBRYTA after a planned 6 month treatment interruption period. This patient subsequently received two doses of ZINBRYTA in the presence of persisting alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) more than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN).
Transaminase and Total Bilirubin Elevations
The incidence of increases in hepatic transaminases was greater in patients taking ZINBRYTA than in those taking AVONEX or placebo. The incidence of ALT or AST elevations above 5 times the ULN was 6% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 3% in AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and 4% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% in patients on placebo (Study 2). Less than 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients had ALT or AST greater than 20 times the ULN. Elevations of hepatic transaminases of at least 3 times the ULN combined with elevated bilirubin at least 2 times the ULN and alkaline phosphatase less than 2 times the ULN occurred in 0.7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.1% of AVONEX-treated patients. In clinical trials, serum transaminase elevations occurred during treatment and up to 4 months after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
Prior to starting treatment with ZINBRYTA, obtain serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin levels [see Contraindications (4)].
Test transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly and assess before the next dose of ZINBRYTA. Follow transaminase levels and total bilirubin monthly for 6 months after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
Treatment modifications are recommended based on serum transaminase and total bilirubin values [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
If a patient develops clinical signs or symptoms suggestive of hepatic dysfunction (e.g., unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or jaundice and/or dark urine), promptly measure serum transaminases and total bilirubin and interrupt or discontinue treatment with ZINBRYTA, as appropriate.
Patients with prolonged elevations of serum transaminases should be evaluated for other possible causes, such as infection, and a specialist should evaluate the patient [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Discontinue ZINBRYTA if autoimmune hepatitis is suspected. Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis with systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant drugs may be required. Some patients may need long-term immunosuppression.
Risk of Hepatic Injury with Concomitant Use of Other Hepatotoxic Drugs
Caution should be used when using hepatotoxic drugs, including non-prescription products, concomitantly with ZINBRYTA. Also, carefully consider the need for the use of herbal products or dietary supplements that can cause hepatotoxicity [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
5.2 Immune-Mediated Disorders
Treatment with ZINBRYTA increases the risk of immune-mediated disorders, including autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis. Across all clinical studies (controlled and open-label), immune-mediated disorders occurred in 28% of patients on ZINBRYTA, the most common of which were skin reactions and lymphadenopathy. In the active-control study (Study 1), immune-mediated disorders were observed in 32% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 12% for AVONEX-treated patients. In Study 1, serious immune-mediated disorders were observed in 4% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with less than 1% for AVONEX-treated patients. In the placebo-control study (Study 2), immune-mediated disorders were observed in 13% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 7% of placebo-treated patients. In Study 2, serious immune-mediated disorders were observed in 0.5% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients and in 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. In some cases, patients had concurrent or sequential occurring disorders while taking ZINBRYTA.
Some patients required invasive procedures for diagnosis (e.g., colonoscopy, liver biopsy, kidney biopsy, lung biopsy), hospitalization for fluid replacement or blood transfusion, or prolonged treatment with systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant drugs. Some of these events did not resolve after stopping ZINBRYTA during study follow-up.
Prescribers should be vigilant regarding emergent immune-mediated disorders. For suspected immune-mediated disorders, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or to exclude other causes. If a patient develops a serious immune-mediated disorder, consider stopping ZINBRYTA and refer the patient to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and treatment.
ZINBRYTA causes skin reactions. In clinical trials, skin reactions occurred in 37% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 19% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 18% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 13% of patients on placebo (Study 2). Skin reactions occurred at any time during treatment with ZINBRYTA. Rashes occurred in 11% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to 4% of AVONEX-treated patients, and in 7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to 3% of patients on placebo. Dermatitis occurred more frequently in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to AVONEX-treated patients or to patients on placebo, and eczema was observed more frequently in ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared to AVONEX-treated patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Psoriatic conditions occurred in 2% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 0.3% of AVONEX-treated patients. Photosensitivity also occurred.
Serious skin reactions occurred in 2% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with 0.1% of patients on AVONEX (Study 1) and in 1% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with none treated with placebo (Study 2). One death resulted from infectious complications following a serious cutaneous reaction. In patients with a history of skin conditions, including eczema or psoriasis, use of ZINBRYTA may exacerbate those conditions. Treatment of skin reactions included treatment with topical or systemic steroids or immunosuppressant drugs, including tacrolimus. In clinical trials, discontinuation because of skin reactions was 4% in ZINBRYTA-treated patients. Rashes took a mean of 3 months to resolve, some were unresolved at the time of the last evaluation.
If a patient develops a serious diffuse or inflammatory rash, it is recommended that a dermatologist evaluate the patient before the next dose of ZINBRYTA. Discontinuation of ZINBRYTA may be appropriate.
ZINBRYTA increases the incidence of lymphadenopathy. In controlled studies, lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis occurred in 6% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 2% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 1% of placebo-treated patients (Study 2). Onset of lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis occurred throughout the treatment period. Serious events related to lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis included infections, benign salivary neoplasm, skin reactions, thrombocytopenia, and interstitial lung changes [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. The majority of cases resolved with or without continued treatment with ZINBRYTA and took a mean of 3 months to resolve. Lymphadenopathy resulted in discontinuation in 0.6 % of ZINBRYTA-treated patients.
Some patients with lymphadenopathy underwent diagnostic biopsy. In the event that lymph node biopsy is considered, full diagnostic evaluation should be conducted by a specialist.
An increased incidence of serious colitis (less than 1%) was reported in patients treated with ZINBRYTA compared with none for patients treated with AVONEX or placebo in clinical trials. Consider referring patients who develop symptoms of colitis (e.g., abdominal pain, fever, prolonged diarrhea) to a specialist.
Other immune-mediated disorders
A wide variety of other immune-mediated disorders, some serious, have occurred infrequently with the use of ZINBRYTA. These include single organ or systemic multi-organ inflammatory reactions. Many events occurred in only one patient, and the relationship to ZINBRYTA is unknown [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Some required treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Some required several months for resolution after the last dose of ZINBRYTA.
For suspected immune-mediated disorders, ensure adequate evaluation to confirm etiology or to exclude other causes. If a patient develops a serious immune-mediated disorder, consider stopping ZINBRYTA and refer the patient to an appropriate specialist for further evaluation and treatment.
5.3 ZINBRYTA REMS Program
ZINBRYTA is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called the ZINBRYTA REMS Program, because of the risks of hepatic injury including autoimmune hepatitis, and other immune-mediated disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
Notable requirements of the ZINBRYTA REMS Program include the following:
Prescribers must be certified with the program by enrolling and completing training.
Patients must enroll in the program and comply with ongoing monitoring requirements [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
Pharmacies must be certified with the program and must only dispense to patients who are authorized to receive ZINBRYTA.
Further information, including a list of qualified pharmacies/distributors, is available at 1-800-456-2255
5.4 Acute Hypersensitivity
ZINBRYTA can cause anaphylaxis, angioedema, and urticaria after the first dose or at any time during treatment. Discontinue and do not re-start ZINBRYTA if anaphylaxis or other allergic reactions occur [see Contraindications (4)].
ZINBRYTA increases the risk for infections. In controlled trials, infections occurred in 65% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 57% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 50% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 44% of patients taking placebo (Study 2). Serious infections occurred in 4% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 2% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 3% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with none on placebo (Study 2).
The most common types of infections observed were upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections and viral infections.
In clinical trials, cases of tuberculosis occurred in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Evaluate high-risk patients for tuberculosis infection prior to initiating treatment with ZINBRYTA. For patients testing positive for tuberculosis, treat by standard medical practice prior to therapy with ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
Avoid initiating ZINBRYTA in patients with severe active infection until the infection is fully controlled. If serious infection develops, consider withholding treatment with ZINBRYTA until the infection resolves.
The safety of immunization with live viral vaccines during treatment with ZINBRYTA has not been studied. Vaccination with live vaccines is not recommended during treatment and up to 4 months after discontinuation of ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
5.6 Depression and Suicide
Depression-related events occurred more frequently in patients receiving ZINBRYTA than in patients receiving AVONEX or placebo. In controlled trials, depression-related events occurred in 10% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 8% of AVONEX-treated patients (Study 1) and in 7% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients compared with 2% of patients taking placebo (Study 2). In Study 1, serious events related to depression, including suicidal ideation or suicide attempt, occurred in 0.4% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients and in 0.7% of AVONEX-treated patients. None occurred in Study 2 (placebo-controlled).
Administer ZINBRYTA with caution to patients with previous or current depressive disorders. Advise patients and/or caregivers to immediately report any symptoms of new or worsening depression and/or suicidal ideation to their healthcare provider.
If a patient develops severe depression and/or suicidal ideation, consider discontinuation of ZINBRYTA.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
Hepatic Injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Immune-Mediated Disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Acute Hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Depression and Suicide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of ZINBRYTA cannot be directly compared with rates in clinical trials of other drugs and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In all controlled and uncontrolled trials performed in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, 2236 patients received ZINBRYTA for a total of 5214 person-years. Of these patients, 1576 received ZINBRYTA for at least 1 year, 1259 for at least 2 years, and 888 for at least 3 years. In the controlled studies, approximately 67% were female, 92% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 36 years at study entry.
In the active-controlled study (Study 1), 919 patients received ZINBRYTA (150 mg SQ, every 4 weeks) and 922 patients received AVONEX (interferon beta-1a 30 mcg IM, weekly) for a minimum of 2 years and up to 3 years, with 1952 person-years of exposure to ZINBRYTA; the median length of treatment was approximately 27 months. The adverse reactions from Study 1 are presented in Table 2.
In the placebo-controlled study (Study 2), 417 patients received ZINBRYTA with 423 person-years of exposure, of which 208 received 150 mg, and 204 received placebo every 4 weeks for up to 1 year; the median length of treatment was approximately 11 months. The adverse reactions from Study 2 are presented in Table 3.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence at least 5% and at least 2% higher incidence than comparator) that occurred in ZINBRYTA-treated patients were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, rash, influenza, dermatitis, oropharyngeal pain, bronchitis, eczema, and lymphadenopathy compared with AVONEX; and upper respiratory tract infection, depression, rash, pharyngitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with placebo.
The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation in up to 5% of patients treated with ZINBRYTA were hepatic events including elevations of serum transaminases and cutaneous events.
Patients were excluded from the clinical studies for abnormal laboratory values including hemoglobin, complete blood count with differential, serum transaminases, or serum creatinine. Patients were excluded if they had a history of seizure disorder or of having a seizure within 6 months of beginning the study, or suicidal ideation or severe depression within 3 months of beginning the study. During Study 1, concomitant use of ZINBRYTA with the hepatotoxic drugs valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, isoniazid, and propylthiouracil was not permitted except in patients already receiving the drugs at the time of study entry.
In clinical studies, serum chemistry was evaluated at baseline and monthly. Hematology was evaluated at baseline, monthly for 6 months, and then every 3 months. Thyroid function was measured at baseline and every 6 months.
Table 2: Adverse Reactions in Adults with RMS with an Incidence at Least 2% More for ZINBRYTA 150 mg SQ Every 4 Weeks than AVONEX 30 mcg IM Once Weekly (Study 1)
2 includes erythematous rash, exfoliative rash, macular rash, maculopapular rash, papular rash, pruritic rash, rash, and vesicular rash
3 includes allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis
4 includes dyshidrotic eczema, eczema, and nummular eczema
Table 3: Adverse Reactions in Adults with RMS with an Incidence at Least 2% More for ZINBRYTA 150 mg SQ Every 4 Weeks than Placebo (Study 2)
2 includes erythematous rash, exfoliative rash, macular rash, maculopapular rash, papular rash, pruritic rash, rash, and vesicular rash
3 includes allergic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatitis, dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis
Other clinically relevant adverse reactions observed at <2% difference included abnormal liver function test, decreased lymphocyte count, diarrhea, dry skin, erythema, folliculitis, increased hepatic enzyme, laryngitis, lymphadenitis, pneumonia, pruritus, psoriasis, respiratory tract infection, skin exfoliation, toxic skin eruption, and viral infection.
In Study 1, seizures occurred in 1% of ZINBRYTA-treated patients, compared with 0.3% of AVONEX-treated patients. In Study 2, no seizures occurred in either treatment group.
Types of immune-mediated or autoimmune conditions that were observed in 2 or more ZINBRYTA-treated patients include type I diabetes, celiac disease, autoimmune thyroiditis, immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancreatitis, glomerulonephritis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, and sialadenitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. The relationship of these events to ZINBRYTA is unknown.
In controlled studies, 1 ZINBRYTA-treated woman developed breast cancer compared with none in the AVONEX-treated group. Across all controlled and open-label clinical studies, 8 of 1485 (0.5%) ZINBRYTA-treated women developed breast cancer, and 1 of 751 (0.1%) ZINBRYTA-treated men developed breast cancer. It is unclear whether this represents an incidence increase over background rate.
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. In Study 1, patients were tested for anti-drug (daclizumab) antibodies at Week 4 and approximately every 3 months thereafter. Anti-drug antibodies and neutralizing antibodies were observed in 19% (175/913) and 8% (71/913) of patients, respectively. Anti-drug antibody responses were transient in 12% (110/913) of patients and persistent in 7% (65/913) of patients. Anti-drug and neutralizing antibody responses predominantly occurred during the first year of treatment, and their frequency declined with continued ZINBRYTA treatment.
In patients with neutralizing antibodies, daclizumab clearance was increased on average by 19% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There was no apparent correlation of anti-drug antibody or neutralizing antibody development to clinical response, adverse reactions, or pharmacodynamic profile of ZINBRYTA.
The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to daclizumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Hepatotoxic Drugs
Caution should be used when using hepatotoxic drugs, including non-prescription products, concomitantly with ZINBRYTA. Carefully consider the need for the use of herbal products or dietary supplements that can cause hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with use of ZINBRYTA in pregnant women.
Administration of ZINBRYTA to monkeys during gestation resulted in embryofetal death and reduced fetal growth at maternal exposures greater than 30 times that expected clinically [see Data]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
In monkeys administered ZINBRYTA (0, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) weekly by subcutaneous injection during organogenesis (gestation days 20 through 50), there was a decrease in fetal body weight and crown-rump length, and an increase in embryofetal death at the highest dose tested. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the no-effect dose of 50 mg/kg was approximately 30 times that in humans at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg.
In monkeys administered ZINBRYTA (50 mg/kg) weekly by subcutaneous injection from gestation day 50 to birth, there were no effects on pre- or postnatal development for up to 6 months after birth. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the administered dose was 55 times that in humans at the RHD.
There are no data on the presence of daclizumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Daclizumab was excreted in the milk of ZINBRYTA-treated monkeys.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for ZINBRYTA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from ZINBRYTA or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of ZINBRYTA in patients less than 17 years old have not been established. Use of ZINBRYTA is not recommended in pediatric patients due to the risks of hepatic injury and immune-mediated disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of ZINBRYTA did not include a sufficient number of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
Clinical trials did not include patients with ALT or AST more than two times the ULN. Patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment may be at increased risk for hepatotoxicity from ZINBRYTA [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4), Contraindications (4), and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2Rα, CD25). Daclizumab is composed of two humanized gamma-1 heavy chains and two humanized kappa light chains and has a molecular weight of approximately 144 kilodaltons (kDa).
ZINBRYTA injection is supplied as a sterile, preservative-free, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution for subcutaneous use in a single-dose prefilled syringe. Each 1 mL prefilled syringe contains 150 mg daclizumab; polysorbate 80, USP (0.3 mg); sodium chloride (5.84 mg); sodium succinate, anhydrous (5.94 mg); succinic acid (0.35 mg); and Water for Injection, USP. The pH is 6.0.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
The precise mechanism by which daclizumab exerts therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis is unknown but is presumed to involve modulation of IL-2 mediated activation of lymphocytes through binding to CD25, a subunit of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor.
During ZINBRYTA treatment, mean cell counts for the major immune subsets (T, B, and NK cells) remained within normal ranges. Total lymphocyte, T and B cell counts decreased less than 10% from baseline during the first year of treatment. Total lymphocyte counts returned to baseline levels approximately 8-12 weeks after the last dose of ZINBRYTA (150 mg).
The pharmacokinetics of ZINBRYTA are similar for healthy volunteers and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Following a single subcutaneous injection of ZINBRYTA, the maximum concentration occurred between 5 and 7 days. At steady state, daclizumab mean maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 30 μg/mL, minimum serum concentration (Cmin) was 15 μg/mL, and area under the serum concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUCtau) values were approximately 640 μg-days per mL. The absolute bioavailability of 150 mg subcutaneous daclizumab was approximately 90%.
After administration of ZINBRYTA 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks, serum daclizumab concentrations reached steady state by the fourth dose. Daclizumab accumulated to a level approximately 2.5-fold compared with a single dose.
The coefficient of variation between individual patients was approximately 35-40% for exposure (Cmax and AUC) and 27-51% for clearance and volume of distribution.
In multiple sclerosis patients taking 150 mg subcutaneous doses of ZINBRYTA every 4 weeks, the estimated steady-state volume of distribution of daclizumab was approximately 6.34 liters.
Metabolism and Elimination
Because it is a protein, daclizumab is expected to undergo catabolism to peptides and amino acids in the same manner as endogenous IgG proteins without renal elimination. The estimated clearance of daclizumab is 0.212 liters per day with an elimination half-life of 21 days. Daclizumab clearance in patients who developed neutralizing antibodies was 19% higher [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Clinical studies did not identify significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between Japanese and Caucasian healthy volunteers. Covariate analyses did not identify significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters based on gender, age, or weight for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
Drug Interaction Studies
ZINBRYTA 150 mg administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks in patients with multiple sclerosis did not significantly affect the systemic exposure of concomitantly administered oral midazolam (CYP3A substrate), warfarin (CYP2C9 substrate), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 substrate), omeprazole (CYP2C19 substrate), or caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate).
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
The carcinogenic potential of ZINBRYTA has not been assessed.
Genetic toxicology studies of ZINBRYTA have not been conducted.
Impairment of Fertility
ZINBRYTA (0, 10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) administered biweekly by subcutaneous injection to monkeys had no adverse effect on male (sperm motility, concentration, and morphology or testosterone levels) or female (estrus cycle length or estradiol/progesterone patterns) fertility endpoints. At the highest dose tested, plasma exposures (AUC) in males and females were 100 and 85 times, respectively, that at the recommended human dose (RHD) of 150 mg.
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
There was a dose-dependent increase in microglial aggregates in the brain and spinal cord of monkeys at subcutaneous doses greater than 10 mg/kg administered biweekly for up to 39 weeks. Microglial aggregates were, in some animals, associated with microhemorrhage; however, no evidence of neuronal injury was observed. There was evidence of reversibility by 12 weeks after the last dose.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
The efficacy of ZINBRYTA was demonstrated in two randomized, double-blind, controlled studies (Study 1 and Study 2). Both studies evaluated 150 mg of subcutaneous ZINBRYTA taken once every four weeks in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS).
Study 1: Active-Controlled Trial in RMS
Study 1 compared ZINBRYTA to 30 mcg weekly intramuscular doses of AVONEX in 1841 patients. The study included RMS patients who had either: 1) at least 2 relapses during the prior 3 years and at least one relapse in the year prior to randomization; or 2) one or more clinical relapses and one or more new T1 gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing or T2 hyperintense MRI lesions within the prior 2 years with at least one of these events in the prior 12 months. Patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis or an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score greater than 5 were excluded. Treatment continued for up to 144 weeks until the last enrolled patient completed 96 weeks of treatment. Clinical assessments were to occur every 12 weeks and after relapse events. MRI scans were performed at Week 24 and Week 96.
The primary outcome measure of Study 1 was the annualized relapse rate (ARR). Additional outcome measures included the proportion of patients relapsed, the proportion of patients who experienced confirmed disability progression, and the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions. Confirmed disability progression was defined as at least a 1 point increase from baseline EDSS (1.5 point increase for patients with baseline EDSS of 0) sustained for 12 weeks.
In Study 1, randomization assigned 919 patients to ZINBRYTA and 922 patients to AVONEX; 71% of ZINBRYTA- and 70% of AVONEX-treated patients completed at least 96 weeks of treatment with the assigned drug. At baseline, the mean age of patients was 36 years, the mean disease duration since diagnosis was 4.2 years, the mean EDSS score was 2.5, and the mean number of relapses in the prior year was 1.6. At baseline, 68% of patients were female, 46% of patients had MRI scans with T1 Gd-enhancing lesions and 41% of patients had previously taken one or more non-steroid treatments for MS.
ZINBRYTA had a statistically significant effect on the annualized relapse rate and on the number of new or newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions. There was no statistically significant effect on 12-week confirmed disability progression.
Results for Study 1 are shown in Table 4 and Figure 1, below.
Table 4: Clinical and MRI Results of Study 1
16.1 How Supplied
ZINBRYTA injection is a sterile, colorless to slightly yellow, clear to slightly opalescent solution for subcutaneous injection supplied in a single-dose prefilled syringe. The rubber plunger stopper and rigid needle shield are not made with natural rubber latex. A 29 gauge, 0.5 inch staked needle is pre-affixed to the syringe. The ZINBRYTA prefilled syringe is available in a carton containing a single-dose prefilled syringe providing 1 mL of 150 mg/mL of daclizumab. The NDC is 0074-0033-01.
16.2 Storage and Handling
Store in a refrigerator between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) in the original carton to protect from light. Do not freeze or expose to temperatures above 30°C (86°F). Discard if frozen.
If refrigeration is unavailable, ZINBRYTA may be stored protected from light up to 30°C (86°F) for a period up to 30 days. Do not place ZINBRYTA back into the refrigerator after allowing it to warm to room temperature. Discard after 30 days without refrigeration.
16.3 Instructions for Disposal
Dispose in a sharps container or other hard plastic or metal sealable container. Always follow local regulations for disposal.
简介： 2016年5月27日，美国FDA批准Zinbryta（daclizumab）用于复发性多发性硬化成年患者治疗。Zinbryta是一种长效注射剂，其每月可由患者自行使用。Zinbryta为可能需要一种新的治疗选择的患者提供了一种额外的 ...