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TECFIDERA(dimethyl fumarate delayed-release capsules)

2015-06-10 19:44:59  作者:新特药房  来源:互联网  浏览次数:92  文字大小:【】【】【
简介: 英文药名:TECFIDERA(dimethyl fumarate delayed-release capsules) 中文药名:富马酸二甲酯缓释胶囊 生产厂家:德国[Biogen Idec]药品介绍富马酸二甲酯缓释胶囊由Biogen Idec公司开发,2013年3月27 ...

英文药名:TECFIDERA(dimethyl fumarate delayed-release capsules)

中文药名:富马酸二甲酯缓释胶囊

生产厂家:德国[Biogen Idec]
药品介绍
富马酸二甲酯缓释胶囊由Biogen Idec公司开发,2013年3月27日获得FDA上市批准,同时也获得了加拿大和澳大利亚的批准。2014年2月3日获得欧盟批准,成为复发-缓解型多发性硬化症的一线口服用药。
炎症和氧化应激是多发性硬化症的关键致病因子。Nrf2本身能够负性调节炎症调节因子和酶类,Nrf2诱导的下游靶基因HO-1是重要的抗炎酶,其抗炎机制被认为可增加一氧化碳水平从而抑制巨噬细胞的活性。富马酸二甲酯及其活性代谢产物富马酸单甲酯能够激活Nrf2-ARE抗氧化信号通路,抵抗活性氧对细胞的损害。
口服给药后,富马酸二甲酯在进行体循环前被胃肠道、血液和组织无处不在的酯酶广泛代谢为活性代谢物:富马酸单甲酯(MMF)。富马酸单甲酯通过三羧酸(TCA)循环产生进一步代谢,代谢途径不涉及细胞色素P450 (CYP) 系统。血浆中主要代谢物为富马酸单甲酯、富马酸、柠檬酸、葡萄糖。主要消除途径为CO2呼出,约占富马酸二甲酯缓释胶囊剂量的60%;肾和粪消除是次要消除途径,分别占剂量的16%和1%。
剂量和给药方法
(1)开始剂量:120mg 1天2次,口服,共7天。
(3)吞全和完整TECFIDERA胶囊。不要挤压,咀嚼,或洒胶囊剂内容无在食物上。
(4)有或无食物服用TECFIDERA。
剂型和规格
缓释胶囊:120mg和240mg。
包装规格[德国上市]
120mg*14粒/盒


240mg*56粒/盒

www.oneyao.net
Tecfidera 120mg gastro-resistant hard capsuleshttp://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/28593
Tecfidera 240mg gastro-resistant hard capsules
1. Name of the medicinal product
Tecfidera 240 mg gastro-resistant hard capsules
2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each capsule contains 240 mg dimethyl fumarate.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. Pharmaceutical form
Gastro-resistant hard capsule
Green gastro-resistant hard capsule printed with 'BG-12 240 mg'.
4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Tecfidera is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (please refer to section 5.1 for important information on the populations for which efficacy has been established).
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Treatment should be initiated under supervision of a physician experienced in the treatment of the disease.
Posology
The starting dose is 120 mg twice a day. After 7 days, the dose is increased to the recommended dose of 240 mg twice a day.
Temporary dose reduction to 120 mg twice a day may reduce the occurrence of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Within 1 month, the recommended dose of 240 mg twice a day should be resumed.
Tecfidera should be taken with food (see section 5.2). For those patients who may experience flushing or gastrointestinal adverse reactions, taking Tecfidera with food may improve tolerability (see sections 4.4, 4.5 and 4.8).
Older people
Clinical studies of Tecfidera had limited exposure to patients aged 55 years and above, and did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients (see section 5.2). Based on the mode of action of the active substance there are no theoretical reasons for any requirement for dose adjustments in the elderly.
Renal and hepatic impairment
Tecfidera has not been studied in patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Based on clinical pharmacology studies, no dose adjustments are needed (see section 5.2). Caution should be used when treating patients with severe renal or severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.4).
Paediatric population
The safety and efficacy of Tecfidera in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years have not been established. No data are available. There is no relevant use of Tecfidera in children aged less than 10 years in multiple sclerosis.
Method of administration
For oral use.
The capsule or its contents should not be crushed, divided, dissolved, sucked or chewed as the enteric-coating of the microtablets prevents irritant effects on the gut.
4.3 Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Blood/laboratory tests
Tecfidera may decrease lymphocyte counts (see section 4.8). Tecfidera has not been studied in patients with pre-existing low lymphocyte counts and caution should be exercised when treating these patients. Prior to initiating treatment with Tecfidera, a recent complete blood count (i.e. within 6 months) should be available. Assessments of complete blood counts are also recommended after 6 months of treatment and every 6 to 12 months thereafter and as clinically indicated.
Changes in renal and hepatic laboratory tests have been seen in clinical trials in subjects treated with Tecfidera (see section 4.8). The clinical implications of these changes are unknown. Assessments of renal function (e.g. creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urinalysis) and hepatic function (e.g. ALT and AST) are recommended prior to treatment initiation, after 3 and 6 months of treatment, every 6 to 12 months thereafter and as clinically indicated.
Severe renal and hepatic impairment
Tecfidera has not been studied in patients with severe renal or severe hepatic impairment and caution should, therefore, be used in these patients (see section 4.2).
Severe active gastrointestinal disease
Tecfidera has not been studied in patients with severe active gastrointestinal disease and caution should, therefore, be used in these patients.
Flushing
In clinical trials, 34% of Tecfidera treated patients experienced flushing. In the majority of patients who experienced flushing, it was mild or moderate in severity.
In clinical trials, 3 patients out of a total of 2,560 patients treated with Tecfidera experienced serious flushing symptoms that were probable hypersensitivity or anaphylactoid reactions. These events were not life-threatening, but led to hospitalisation. Prescribers and patients should be alert to this possibility in the event of severe flushing reactions (see sections 4.2, 4.5 and 4.8).
Infections
In phase III placebo-controlled studies, the incidence of infections (60% vs 58%) and serious infections (2% vs 2%) was similar in patients treated with Tecfidera or placebo, respectively. There was no increased incidence of serious infections observed in patients with lymphocyte counts <0.8x109/L or <0.5x109/L. During treatment with Tecfidera in the MS placebo controlled trials, mean lymphocyte counts decreased by approximately 30% from baseline at one year and then plateaued (see section 4.8). Mean lymphocyte counts remained within normal limits. If a patient develops a serious infection, suspending treatment with Tecfidera should be considered and the benefits and risks should be reassessed prior to re-initiation of therapy. Patients receiving Tecfidera should be instructed to report symptoms of infections to a physician. Patients with serious infections should not start treatment with Tecfidera until the infection(s) is resolved.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Tecfidera has not been studied in combination with anti-neoplastic or immunosuppressive therapies and caution should, therefore, be used during concomitant administration. In multiple sclerosis clinical studies, the concomitant treatment of relapses with a short course of intravenous corticosteroids was not associated with a clinically relevant increase of infection.
Vaccination during treatment with Tecfidera has not been studied. It is not known whether treatment with Tecfidera might reduce the effectiveness of some vaccines. Live vaccines might carry an increased risk of clinical infection and should not be given to patients treated with Tecfidera unless, in exceptional cases, this potential risk is considered to be outweighed by the risk to the individual of not vaccinating.
During treatment with Tecfidera, simultaneous use of other fumaric acid derivatives (topical or systemic) should be avoided.
In humans, dimethyl fumarate is extensively metabolised by esterases before it reaches the systemic circulation and further metabolism occurs through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with no involvement of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Potential drug interaction risks were not identified from in vitro CYP-inhibition and induction studies, a p-glycoprotein study, or studies of the protein binding of dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate (a primary metabolite of dimethyl fumarate).
Commonly used medicinal products in patients with multiple sclerosis, intramuscular interferon beta-1a and glatiramer acetate, were clinically tested for potential interactions with dimethyl fumarate and did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of dimethyl fumarate.
Administration of 325 mg (or equivalent) non-enteric coated acetylsalicylic acid, 30 minutes prior to Tecfidera, over 4 days of dosing, did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of Tecfidera and reduced the occurrence and severity of flushing in a healthy volunteer study. However, long term use of acetylsalicylic acid is not recommended for the management of flushing. Potential risks associated with acetylsalicylic acid therapy should be considered prior to co-administration with Tecfidera. (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 4.8).
Concurrent therapy with nephrotoxic medicinal products (such as aminoglycosides, diuretics, NSAIDs or lithium) may increase the potential of renal adverse reactions (e.g. proteinuria) in patients taking Tecfidera (see section 4.8).
Consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol did not alter exposure to Tecfidera and was not associated with an increase in adverse reactions. Consumption of large quantities of undiluted strong alcoholic drinks (more than 30% alcohol by volume) may lead to increased dissolution rates of Tecfidera and, therefore, may increase the frequency of gastrointestinal adverse reactions.
In vitro CYP induction studies did not demonstrate an interaction between Tecfidera and oral contraceptives. In vivo interaction studies have not been performed with oral contraceptives. Even though an interaction is not expected, non-hormonal contraceptive measures should be considered with Tecfidera (see section 4.6).
Paediatric population
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Pregnancy
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of dimethyl fumarate in pregnant women. Animal studies have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). Tecfidera is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using appropriate contraception (see section 4.5). Tecfidera should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed and if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.
Breast-feeding
It is unknown whether dimethyl fumarate or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue Tecfidera therapy. The benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman should be taken into account.
Fertility
There are no data on the effects of Tecfidera on human fertility. Data from preclinical studies do not suggest that dimethyl fumarate would be associated with an increased risk of reduced fertility (see section 5.3).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
No studies on the ability to drive and use machines have been conducted.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥10%) for patients treated with Tecfidera were flushing and gastrointestinal events (i.e. diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, abdominal pain upper). Flushing and gastrointestinal events tend to begin early in the course of treatment (primarily during the first month) and in patients who experience flushing and gastrointestinal events, these events may continue to occur intermittently throughout treatment with Tecfidera. The most commonly reported adverse reactions leading to discontinuation (incidence >1%) in patients treated with Tecfidera were flushing (3%) and gastrointestinal events (4%).
In placebo-controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies, a total of 2,468 patients have received Tecfidera and been followed for periods up to 4 years with an overall exposure equivalent to 3,588 person-years. Approximately 1,056 patients have received more than 2 years of treatment with Tecfidera. The experience in uncontrolled clinical trials is consistent with the experience in the placebo-controlled clinical trials.
Tabulated summary of adverse reactions
Adverse reactions, which were more frequently reported in Tecfidera versus placebo-treated patients, are presented in the table below. These data were derived from 2 pivotal Phase 3 placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials with a total of 1,529 patients treated with Tecfidera and for up to 24 months with an overall exposure of 2,371 person-years (see section 5.1). The frequencies described in the table below are based on 769 patients treated with Tecfidera 240 mg twice a day and 771 patients treated with placebo.
The adverse reactions are presented as MedDRA preferred terms under the MedDRA System Organ Class. The incidence of the adverse reactions below are expressed according to the following categories:
- Very common (≥1/10)
- Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)
- Uncommon (≥1/1, 000 to <1/100)
- Rare (≥1/10, 000 to <1/1,000)
- Very rare (<1/10,000)
- Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

MedDRA System Organ Class

Adverse reaction

Frequency category

Infections and infestations

Gastroenteritis

Common

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Lymphopenia

Common

Leucopenia

Common

Immune system disorders

Hypersensitivity

Uncommon

Nervous system disorders

Burning sensation

Common

Vascular disorders

Flushing

Very common

Hot flush

Common

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Very common

Nausea

Very common

Abdominal pain upper

Very common

Abdominal pain

Very common

Vomiting

Common

Dyspepsia

Common

Gastritis

Common

Gastrointestinal disorder

Common

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Pruritus

Common

Rash

Common

Erythema

Common

Renal and urinary disorders

Proteinuria

Common

General disorders and administration site conditions

Feeling hot

Common

Investigations

Ketones measured in urine

Very common

Albumin urine present

Common

Aspartate aminotransferase increased

Common

Alanine aminotransferase increased

Common

White blood cell count decreased

Common

Description of selected adverse reactions
Flushing
In the placebo-controlled studies, the incidence of flushing (34% versus 4%) and hot flush (7% versus 2%) was increased in patients treated with Tecfidera compared to placebo, respectively. Flushing is usually described as flushing or hot flush, but can include other events (e.g. warmth, redness, itching, and burning sensation). Flushing events tend to begin early in the course of treatment (primarily during the first month) and in patients who experience flushing, these events may continue to occur intermittently throughout treatment with Tecfidera. In patients with flushing, the majority had flushing events that were mild or moderate in severity. Overall, 3% of patients treated with Tecfidera discontinued due to flushing. The incidence of serious flushing, which may be characterised by generalised erythema, rash and/or pruritus, was seen in less than 1% of patients treated with Tecfidera (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 4.5).
Gastrointestinal
The incidence of gastrointestinal events (e.g. diarrhoea [14% versus 10%], nausea [12% versus 9%], upper abdominal pain [10% versus 6%], abdominal pain [9% versus 4%], vomiting [8% versus 5%] and dyspepsia [5% versus 3%]) was increased in patients treated with Tecfidera compared to placebo, respectively. Gastrointestinal events tend to begin early in the course of treatment (primarily during the first month) and in patients who experience gastrointestinal events, these events may continue to occur intermittently throughout treatment with Tecfidera. In the majority of patients who experienced gastrointestinal events, it was mild or moderate in severity. Four per cent (4%) of patients treated with Tecfidera discontinued due to gastrointestinal events. The incidence of serious gastrointestinal events, including gastroenteritis and gastritis, was seen in 1% of patients treated with Tecfidera (see section 4.2).
Hepatic transaminases
In placebo-controlled studies, elevations of hepatic transaminases were observed. The majority of patients with elevations had hepatic transaminases that were <3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN). The increased incidence of elevations of hepatic transaminases in patients treated with Tecfidera relative to placebo was primarily seen during the first 6 months of treatment. Elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase ≥3 times ULN, respectively, were seen in 5% and 2% of patients treated with placebo and 6% and 2% of patients treated with Tecfidera. There were no elevations in transaminases ≥3 times ULN with concomitant elevations in total bilirubin >2 times ULN. Discontinuations due to elevated hepatic transaminases were <1% and similar in patients treated with Tecfidera or placebo.
Renal
In placebo-controlled studies, the incidence of proteinuria was higher in patients treated with Tecfidera (9%) compared to placebo (7%). The overall incidence of renal and urinary adverse events was similar for Tecfidera and placebo-treated patients. There were no reports of serious renal failure. On urinalysis, the percentage of patients with protein values of 1+ or greater was similar for Tecfidera (43%) and placebo-treated patients (40%). Typically, laboratory observations of proteinuria were not progressive. Compared to patients treated with placebo, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was observed to increase in patients treated with Tecfidera, including those patients with 2 consecutive occurrences of proteinuria (≥1+).
Haematological
In the placebo-controlled studies, most patients (>98%) had normal lymphocyte values prior to initiating treatment. Upon treatment with Tecfidera, mean lymphocyte counts decreased over the first year with a subsequent plateau. On average, lymphocyte counts decreased by approximately 30% of baseline value. Mean and median lymphocyte counts remained within normal limits. Lymphocyte counts <0.5x109/l were observed in <1% of patients treated with placebo and 6% of patients treated with Tecfidera. A lymphocyte count <0.2x109/l was observed in 1 patient treated with Tecfidera and in no patients treated with placebo. The incidence of infections (58% versus 60%) and serious infections (2% versus 2%) was similar in patients treated with placebo or Tecfidera. An increased incidence of infections and serious infections was not observed in patients with lymphocyte counts <0.8x109/l or <0.5x109/l. A transient increase in mean eosinophil counts was seen during the first 2 months of therapy.
Laboratory abnormalities
In the placebo-controlled studies, measurement of urinary ketones (1+ or greater) was higher in patients treated with Tecfidera (45%) compared to placebo (10%). No untoward clinical consequences were observed in clinical trials.
Levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D decreased in Tecfidera treated patients relative to placebo (median percentage decrease from baseline at 2 years of 25% versus 15%, respectively) and levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased in Tecfidera treated patients relative to placebo (median percentage increase from baseline at 2 years of 29% versus 15%, respectively). Mean values for both parameters remained within normal range.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system:
United Kingdom
Yellow Card Scheme
Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Ireland
HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971
Fax: +353 1 6762517
Website: www.hpra.ie
e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie
4.9 Overdose
No cases of overdose have been reported.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other nervous system drugs, ATC code: N07XX09
Mechanism of action
The mechanism by which dimethyl fumarate exerts therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis is not fully understood. Preclinical studies indicate that dimethyl fumarate pharmacodynamic responses appear to be primarily mediated through activation of the Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional pathway. Dimethyl fumarate has been shown to up regulate Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes in patients (e.g. NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1; [NQO1]).
Pharmacodynamic effects
Effects on the immune system
In preclinical and clinical studies, Tecfidera demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate, the primary metabolite of dimethyl fumarate, significantly reduced immune cell activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli in preclinical models. In clinical studies with psoriasis patients, dimethyl fumarate affected lymphocyte phenotypes through a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles (TH1, TH17), and biased towards anti-inflammatory production (TH2). Dimethyl fumarate demonstrated therapeutic activity in multiple models of inflammatory and neuroinflammatory injury. In Phase 3 studies, upon treatment with Tecfidera mean lymphocyte counts decreased on average by approximately 30% of their baseline value over the first year with a subsequent plateau.
Effect on cardiovascular system
Single doses of 240 mg or 360 mg Tecfidera did not have any effect on the QTc interval when compared to placebo in a QTc study.
Clinical efficacy and safety
Two, 2-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled studies [Study 1 (DEFINE) with 1234 subjects and Study 2 (CONFIRM) with 1417 subjects] of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were performed. Subjects with progressive forms of MS were not included in these studies. Efficacy (see table below) and safety were demonstrated in subjects with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores ranging from 0 to 5 inclusive, who had experienced at least 1 relapse during the year prior to randomisation, or, within 6 weeks of randomisation had a brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrating at least one gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion. Study 2 contained a rater-blinded (i.e. study physician/ investigator assessing the response to study treatment was blinded) reference comparator of glatiramer acetate.
In Study 1, patients had the following median baseline characteristics: age 39 years, disease duration 7.0 years, EDSS score 2.0. In addition, 16% of patients had an EDSS score >3.5, 28% had ≥2 relapses in the prior year and 42% had previously received other approved MS treatments. In the MRI cohort 36% of patients entering the study had Gd+ lesions at baseline (mean number of Gd+ lesions 1.4).
In Study 2, patients had the following median baseline characteristics: age 37 years, disease duration 6.0 years, EDSS score 2.5. In addition, 17% of patients had an EDSS score >3.5, 32% had ≥2 relapses in the prior year and 30% had previously received other approved MS treatments. In the MRI cohort 45% of patients entering the study had Gd+ lesions at baseline (mean number of Gd+ lesions 2.4).
Compared to placebo, subjects treated with Tecfidera had a clinically meaningful and statistically significant reduction on: the primary endpoint in Study 1, proportion of subjects relapsed at 2 years; and the primary endpoint in Study 2, annualised relapse rate at 2 years.
The annualised relapse rate for glatiramer acetate and placebo was 0.286 and 0.401 respectively in Study 2, corresponding to a reduction of 29% (p=0.013), which is consistent with approved prescribing information.

DEFINE

CONFIRM

 

Placebo

Tecfidera 240 mg twice a day

Placebo

Tecfidera 240 mg twice a day

Glatiramer acetate

Clinical Endpointsa

No. subjects

408

410

363

359

350

Annualised relapse rate

0.364

0.172***

0.401

0.224***

0.286*

Rate ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.47

(0.37, 0.61)

 

0.56

(0.42, 0.74)

0.71

(0.55, 0.93)

Proportion relapsed

0.461

0.270***

0.410

0.291**

0.321**

Hazard ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.51

(0.40, 0.66)

 

0.66

(0.51, 0.86)

0.71

(0.55, 0.92)

Proportion with 12-week confirmed disability progression

0.271 

0.164** 

0.169 

0.128#

0.156#

Hazard ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.62

(0.44, 0.87)

 

0.79

(0.52, 1.19)

0.93

(0.63, 1.37)

Proportion with 24 week confirmed disability progression

0.169

0.128#

0.125

0.078#

0.108#

Hazard ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.77

(0.52, 1.14)

 

0.62

(0.37, 1.03)

0.87

(0.55, 1.38)

MRI Endpointsb

 

 

 

 

 

No. subjects

165

152

144

147

161

Mean (median) number of new or newly enlarging T2 lesions over 2 years

16.5

(7.0)

3.2

(1.0)***

19.9

(11.0)

5.7

(2.0)***

9.6

(3.0)***

Lesion mean ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.15

(0.10, 0.23)

 

0.29

(0.21, 0.41)

0.46

(0.33, 0.63)

Mean (median) number of Gd lesions at 2 years

1.8

(0)

0.1

(0)***

2.0

(0.0)

0.5

(0.0)***

0.7

(0.0)**

Odds ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.10

(0.05, 0.22)

 

0.26

(0.15, 0.46)

0.39

(0.24, 0.65)

Mean (median) number of new T1 hypointense lesions over 2 years

5.7

(2.0)

2.0

(1.0)***

8.1

(4.0)

3.8

(1.0)***

4.5

(2.0)**

Lesion mean ratio

(95% CI)

 

0.28

(0.20, 0.39)

 

0.43

(0.30, 0.61)

0.59

(0.42, 0.82)

aAll analyses of clinical endpoints were intent-to-treat; bMRI analysis used MRI cohort
*P-value < 0.05; **P-value < 0.01; ***P-value < 0.0001; #not statistically significant
Efficacy in patients with high disease activity:
Consistent treatment effect on relapses in a subgroup of patients with high disease activity was observed, whilst the effect on time to 3-month sustained disability progression was not clearly established. Due to the design of the studies, high disease activity was defined as follows:
- Patients with 2 or more relapses in one year, and with one or more Gd-enhancing lesions on brain MRI (n=42 in DEFINE; n=51 in CONFIRM) or,
- Patients who have failed to respond to a full and adequate course (at least one year of treatment) of beta-interferon, having had at least 1 relapse in the previous year while on therapy, and at least 9 T2-hyperintense lesions in cranial MRI or at least 1 Gd-enhancing lesion, or patients having an unchanged or increased relapse rate in the prior year as compared to the previous 2 years (n=177 in DEFINE; n=141 in CONFIRM).
Paediatric population
The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Tecfidera in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in multiple sclerosis (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Orally administered Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate) undergoes rapid presystemic hydrolysis by esterases and is converted to its primary metabolite, monomethyl fumarate, which is also active. Dimethyl fumarate is not quantifiable in plasma following oral administration of Tecfidera. Therefore, all pharmacokinetic analyses related to dimethyl fumarate were performed with plasma monomethyl fumarate concentrations. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained in subjects with multiple sclerosis and healthy volunteers.
Absorption
The Tmax of monomethyl fumarate is 2 to 2.5 hours. As Tecfidera gastro-resistant hard capsules contain microtablets, which are protected by an enteric coating, absorption does not commence until they leave the stomach (generally less than 1 hour). Following 240 mg twice a day administered with food, the median peak (Cmax) was 1.72 mg/l and overall (AUC) exposure was 8.02 h.mg/l in subjects with multiple sclerosis. Overall, Cmax and AUC increased approximately dose- proportionally in the dose range studied (120 mg to 360 mg). In subjects with multiple sclerosis, two 240 mg doses were administered 4 hours apart as part of a three times a day dosing regimen. This resulted in a minimal accumulation of exposure yielding an increase in the median Cmax of 12% compared to the twice daily dosing (1.72 mg/l for twice daily compared to 1.93 mg/l for three times daily) with no safety implications.
Food does not have a clinically significant effect on exposure of dimethyl fumarate. However, Tecfidera should be taken with food due to improved tolerability with respect to flushing or gastrointestinal adverse events (see section 4.2).
Distribution
The apparent volume of distribution following oral administration of 240 mg Tecfidera varies between 60 L and 90 L. Human plasma protein binding of monomethyl fumarate generally ranges between 27% and 40%.
Biotransformation
In humans, dimethyl fumarate is extensively metabolised with less than 0.1% of the dose excreted as unchanged dimethyl fumarate in urine. It is initially metabolised by esterases, which are ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract, blood and tissues, before it reaches the systemic circulation. Further metabolism occurs through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with no involvement of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. A single 240 mg 14C-dimethyl fumarate dose study identified glucose as the predominant metabolite in human plasma. Other circulating metabolites included fumaric acid, citric acid and monomethyl fumarate. The downstream metabolism of fumaric acid occurs through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with exhalation of CO2 serving as a primary route of elimination.
Elimination
Exhalation of CO2 is the primary route of dimethyl fumarate elimination accounting for 60% of the dose. Renal and faecal elimination are secondary routes of elimination, accounting for 15.5% and 0.9% of the dose respectively.
The terminal half-life of monomethyl fumarate is short (approximately 1 hour) and no circulating monomethyl fumarate is present at 24 hours in the majority of individuals. Accumulation of parent drug or monomethyl fumarate does not occur with multiple doses of dimethyl fumarate at the therapeutic regimen.
Linearity
Dimethyl fumarate exposure increases in an approximately dose proportional manner with single and multiple doses in the 120 mg to 360 mg dose range studied.
Pharmacokinetics in special patient groups
Based on the results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), body weight is the main covariate of exposure (by Cmax and AUC) in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) subjects, but did not affect safety and efficacy measures evaluated in the clinical studies.
Gender and age did not have a clinically significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of dimethyl fumarate. The pharmacokinetics in patients aged 65 and over has not been studied.
Paediatric population
The pharmacokinetics in patients below the age of 18 has not been studied.
Renal impairment
Since the renal pathway is a secondary route of elimination for dimethyl fumarate accounting for less than 16% of the dose administered, evaluation of pharmacokinetics in individuals with renal impairment was not conducted.
Hepatic impairment
As dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate are metabolised by esterases, without the involvement of the CYP450 system, evaluation of phamacokinetics in individuals with hepatic impairment was not conducted.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
The adverse reactions described in the Toxicology and Reproduction toxicity sections below were not observed in clinical studies, but were seen in animals at exposure levels similar to clinical exposure levels.
Mutagenesis
Dimethyl fumarate and mono-methylfumarate were negative in a battery of in vitro assays (Ames, chromosomal aberration in mammalian cells). Dimethyl fumarate was negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay in the rat.
Carcinogenesis
Carcinogenicity studies of dimethyl fumarate were conducted for up to 2 years in mice and rats. Dimethyl fumarate was administered orally at doses of 25, 75, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day in mice, and at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day in rats. In mice, the incidence of renal tubular carcinoma was increased at 75 mg/kg/day, at equivalent exposure (AUC) to the recommended human dose. In rats, the incidence of renal tubular carcinoma was increased at 100 mg/kg/day, approximately 3 times higher exposure than the recommended human dose. The relevance of these findings to human risk is unknown.
The incidence of squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma in the nonglandular stomach (forestomach) was increased at equivalent exposure to the recommended human dose in mice and below exposure to the recommended human dose in rats (based on AUC). The forestomach in rodents does not have a human counterpart.
Toxicology
Nonclinical studies in rodent, rabbits, and monkeys were conducted with a dimethyl fumarate suspension (dimethyl fumarate in 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) administered by oral gavage. The chronic dog study was conducted with oral administration of the dimethyl fumarate capsule.
Kidney changes were observed after repeated oral administration of dimethyl fumarate in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Renal tubule epithelial regeneration, suggestive of injury, was observed in all species. Renal tubular hyperplasia was observed in rats with life time dosing (2-year study). Cortical atrophy was observed in dogs and monkeys, and single cell necrosis and interstitial fibrosis were observed in monkeys that received daily oral doses of dimethyl fumarate for 12 months, at 6 times the recommended dose based on AUC. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known.
In the testes, degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium was seen in rats and dogs. The findings were observed at approximately the recommended dose in rats and 6 times the recommended dose in dogs (AUC basis). The relevance of these findings to humans is not known.
Findings in the forestomach of mice and rats consisted of squamous epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis; inflammation; and squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma in studies of 3 months or longer in duration. The forestomach of mice and rats does not have a human counterpart.
Reproduction toxicity
Oral administration of dimethyl fumarate to male rats at 75, 250, and 375 mg/kg/day prior to and during mating had no effects on male fertility up to the highest dose tested (at least 2 times the recommended dose on an AUC basis). Oral administration of dimethyl fumarate to female rats at 25, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day prior to and during mating, and continuing to Day 7 of gestation, induced reduction in the number of estrous stages per 14 days and increased the number of animals with prolonged diestrus at the highest dose tested (11 times the recommended dose on an AUC basis). However, these changes did not affect fertility or the number of viable fetuses produced.
Dimethyl fumarate has been shown to cross the placental membrane into fetal blood in rats and rabbits, with ratios of fetal to maternal plasma concentrations of 0.48 to 0.64 and 0.1 respectively. No malformations were observed at any dose of dimethyl fumarate in rats or rabbits. Administration of dimethyl fumarate at oral doses of 25, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in maternal adverse effects at 4 times the recommended dose on an AUC basis, and low fetal weight and delayed ossification (metatarsals and hindlimb phalanges) at 11 times the recommended dose on an AUC basis. The lower fetal weight and delayed ossification were considered secondary to maternal toxicity (reduced body weight and food consumption).
Oral administration of dimethyl fumarate at 25, 75, and 150 mg/kg/day to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis had no effect on embryo-fetal development and resulted in reduced maternal body weight at 7 times the recommended dose and increased abortion at 16 times the recommended dose, on an AUC basis.
Oral administration of dimethyl fumarate at 25, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day to rats during pregnancy and lactation resulted in lower body weights in the F1 offspring, and delays in sexual maturation in F1 males at 11 times the recommended dose on an AUC basis. There were no effects on fertility in the F1 offspring. The lower offspring body weight was considered secondary to maternal toxicity.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Enteric-coated microtablets
Microcrystalline cellulose
Croscarmellose sodium
Talc
Silica, hydrophobic colloidal
Magnesium stearate
Triethyl citrate
Methacrylic acid – methyl methacrylate copolymer (1:1)
Methacrylic acid – ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1) dispersion 30%
Simeticone
Sodium laurilsulfate
Polysorbate 80
Capsule shell
Gelatin
Titanium dioxide (E171)
Brilliant Blue FCF (E133)
Yellow iron oxide (E172)
Capsule print (black ink)
Shellac
Potassium hydroxide
Black iron oxide (E172)
6.2 Incompatibilities
Not applicable.
6.3 Shelf life
240 mg gastro-resistant hard capsules: 3 years
6.4 Special precautions for storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Keep the blisters in the outer carton in order to protect from light.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
240 mg capsules: 56 or 168 capsules in PVC/PE/PVDC-PVC aluminium blister packs.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
Biogen Idec Ltd
Innovation House
70 Norden Road
Maidenhead
Berkshire
SL6 4AY
United Kingdom
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
EU/1/13/837/002
EU/1/13/837/003
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 30 January 2014
10. Date of revision of the text
10/2014
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.

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