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Harvoni(sofosbuvir/ledipasvir filmcoated tablets)

2015-01-03 07:57:21  作者:新特药房  来源:互联网  浏览次数:1570  文字大小:【】【】【
简介:吉列德的新丙肝复方药物Harvoni(sofosbuvir/ledipasvir)正式获得欧洲批准,主要由400毫克索菲布韦片和90毫克的ledipasvir组成,每天服用一次。该药物适应症是基因1型慢性丙型肝炎。Harvoni 90 mg/400 m ...

新丙肝复方药物Harvoni(sofosbuvir/ledipasvir)正式获得欧洲批准上市,主要由400毫克索菲布韦片和90毫克的ledipasvir组成,每天服用一次。该药物适应症是基因1型慢性丙型肝炎。
Harvoni 90mg/400mg film-coated tablets
1. Name of the medicinal product
Harvoni 90 mg/400 mg film-coated tablets
2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each film-coated tablet contains 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir.
Excipients with known effect:
Each film-coated tablet contains 156.8 mg of lactose (as monohydrate) and 261 micrograms of sunset yellow FCF aluminium lake.
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. Pharmaceutical form
Film-coated tablet.
Orange, diamond-shaped, film-coated tablet of dimensions 19 mm x 10 mm, debossed with “GSI” on one side and “7985” on the other side.
4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Harvoni is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in adults (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.1).
For hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-specific activity see sections 4.4 and 5.1.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
Harvoni treatment should be initiated and monitored by a physician experienced in the management of patients with CHC.
Posology
The recommended dose of Harvoni is one tablet once daily with or without food (see section 5.2).
Table 1: Recommended treatment duration for Harvoni and the recommended use of co-administered ribavirin for certain subgroups

Patient population*

Treatment

Duration

Patients with genotype 1 or genotype 4 CHC

Patients without cirrhosis

Harvoni

12 weeks.

- 8 weeks may be considered in previously untreated genotype 1-infected patients (see section 5.1, ION-3 study).

- 24 weeks should be considered for previously treated patients with uncertain subsequent retreatment options (see section 4.4).

Patients with compensated cirrhosis

Harvoni

24 weeks.

- 12 weeks may be considered for patients deemed at low risk for clinical disease progression and who have subsequent retreatment options (see section 4.4).

Patients with decompensated cirrhosis or who are pre-/post-liver transplant

Harvoni + ribavirin

24 weeks (see sections 4.4 and 5.1)

Patients with genotype 3 CHC

Patients with cirrhosis and/or prior treatment failure

Harvoni + ribavirin

24 weeks (see sections 4.4 and 5.1)

* Includes patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
When used in combination with ribavirin, refer also to the Summary of Product Characteristics of ribavirin.
In patients without decompensated cirrhosis requiring the addition of ribavirin to their treatment regimen (see Table 1), the daily dose of ribavirin is weight based (< 75 kg = 1,000 mg and ≥ 75 kg = 1,200 mg) and administered orally in two divided doses with food.
In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, ribavirin should be administered at a starting dose of 600 mg given in a divided daily dose. If the starting dose is well-tolerated, the dose can be titrated up to a maximum of 1,000-1,200 mg daily (1,000 mg for patients weighing < 75 kg and 1,200 mg for patients weighing ≥ 75 kg). If the starting dose is not well-tolerated, the dose should be reduced as clinically indicated based on haemoglobin levels.
Dose modification of ribavirin in patients taking 1,000-1,200 mg daily
If Harvoni is used in combination with ribavirin and a patient has a serious adverse reaction potentially related to ribavirin, the ribavirin dose should be modified or discontinued, if appropriate, until the adverse reaction abates or decreases in severity. Table 2 provides guidelines for dose modifications and discontinuation based on the patient's haemoglobin concentration and cardiac status.
Table 2: Ribavirin dose modification guideline for co-administration with Harvoni

Laboratory values

Reduce ribavirin dose to 600 mg/day if:

Discontinue ribavirin if:

Haemoglobin in patients with no cardiac disease

< 10 g/dL

< 8.5 g/dL

Haemoglobin in patients with history of stable cardiac disease

≥ 2 g/dL decrease in haemoglobin during any 4-week treatment period

< 12 g/dL despite 4 weeks at reduced dose

Once ribavirin has been withheld due to either a laboratory abnormality or clinical manifestation, an attempt may be made to restart ribavirin at 600 mg daily and further increase the dose to 800 mg daily. However, it is not recommended that ribavirin be increased to the originally assigned dose (1,000 mg to 1,200 mg daily).
Patients should be instructed that if vomiting occurs within 5 hours of dosing an additional tablet should be taken. If vomiting occurs more than 5 hours after dosing, no further dose is needed (see section 5.1).
If a dose is missed and it is within 18 hours of the normal time, patients should be instructed to take the tablet as soon as possible and then patients should take the next dose at the usual time. If it is after 18 hours then patients should be instructed to wait and take the next dose at the usual time. Patients should be instructed not to take a double dose.
Elderly
No dose adjustment is warranted for elderly patients (see section 5.2).
Renal impairment
No dose adjustment of Harvoni is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir has not been assessed in patients with severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (see section 5.2).
Hepatic impairment
No dose adjustment of Harvoni is required for patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh-Turcotte [CPT] class A, B or C) (see section 5.2). Safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir have been established in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (see section 5.1).
Paediatric population
The safety and efficacy of Harvoni in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
For oral use.
Patients should be instructed to swallow the tablet whole with or without food. Due to the bitter taste, it is recommended that the film-coated tablet is not chewed or crushed (see section 5.2).
4.3 Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Co-administration with rosuvastatin or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) (see section 4.5).
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Harvoni should not be administered concomitantly with other medicinal products containing sofosbuvir.
Genotype-specific activity
Concerning recommended regimens with different HCV genotypes, see section 4.2. Concerning genotype-specific virological and clinical activity, see section 5.1.
The clinical data to support the use of Harvoni in patients infected with HCV genotype 3 are limited (see section 5.1). The relative efficacy of a 12-week regimen consisting of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin, compared to a 24-week regimen of sofosbuvir + ribavirin has not been investigated. A conservative 24 weeks of therapy is advised in all treatment-experienced genotype 3 patients and those treatment-naïve genotype 3 patients with cirrhosis (see section 4.2).
The clinical data to support the use of Harvoni in patients infected with HCV genotype 4 are limited (see section 5.1).
The efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir has not been studied against HCV genotype 2, 5 and 6; therefore, Harvoni should not be used in patients infected with these genotypes.
Treatment of patients with prior exposure to HCV direct-acting antivirals
In patients who fail treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, selection of NS5A resistance mutations that substantially reduce the susceptibility to ledipasvir is seen in the majority of cases (see section 5.1). Limited data indicate that such NS5A mutations do not revert on long-term follow-up. There are presently no data to support the effectiveness of retreatment of patients who have failed ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with a subsequent regimen that contains an NS5A inhibitor. Similarly, there are presently no data to support the effectiveness of NS3/4A protease inhibitors in patients who previously failed prior therapy that included an NS3/4A protease inhibitor. Such patients may therefore be dependent on other drug classes for clearance of HCV infection. Consequently, consideration should be given to longer treatment for patients with uncertain subsequent retreatment options.
Renal impairment
No dose adjustment of Harvoni is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety of Harvoni has not been assessed in patients with severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis. When Harvoni is used in combination with ribavirin refer also to the Summary of Product Characteristics for ribavirin for patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 50 mL/min (see section 5.2).
Patients with decompensated cirrhosis and/or who are awaiting liver transplant or post-liver transplant
The relative efficacy of 12 and 24 weeks of therapy has not been established. Therefore, 24 weeks of therapy is recommended (see sections 4.2 and 5.1). Treatment with Harvoni should be guided by an assessment of the potential benefits and risks for the individual patient.
Use with potent P-gp inducers
Medicinal products that are potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inducers (e.g. rifampicin, carbamazepine and phenytoin) may significantly decrease ledipasvir and sofosbuvir plasma concentration which may lead to reduced therapeutic effect of Harvoni. Such medicinal products should not be used with Harvoni (see section 4.5).
Use with certain HIV antiretroviral regimens
Harvoni has been shown to increase tenofovir exposure, especially when used together with an HIV regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (ritonavir or cobicistat). The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Harvoni and a pharmacokinetic enhancer has not been established. The potential risks and benefits associated with co-administration of Harvoni with the fixed-dose combination tablet containing elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate given in conjunction with a boosted HIV protease inhibitor (e.g. atazanavir or darunavir) should be considered, particularly in patients at increased risk of renal dysfunction. Patients receiving Harvoni concomitantly with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and a boosted HIV protease inhibitor should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Refer to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Summary of Product Characteristics for recommendations on renal monitoring.
Use with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Co-administration of Harvoni and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can significantly increase the concentration of the statin, which increases the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (see section 4.5).
HCV/HBV (hepatitis B virus) co-infection
There are no data on the use of Harvoni in patients with HCV/HBV co-infection.
Paediatric population
Harvoni is not recommended for use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age because the safety and efficacy have not been established in this population.
Excipients
Harvoni contains the azo colouring agent sunset yellow FCF aluminium lake (E110), which may cause allergic reactions. It also contains lactose. Consequently, patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
As Harvoni contains ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, any interactions that have been identified with these active substances individually may occur with Harvoni.
Potential for Harvoni to affect other medicinal products
Ledipasvir is an in vitro inhibitor of drug transporter P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and may increase intestinal absorption of co-administered substrates for these transporters. In vitro data indicate that ledipasvir may be a weak inducer of metabolising enzymes such as CYP3A4, CYP2C and UGT1A1. Compounds that are substrates of these enzymes may have decreased plasma concentrations when co-administered with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. In vitro ledipasvir inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 and UGT1A1. Medicinal products that have a narrow therapeutic range and which are metabolised by these isoenzymes should be used with caution and carefully monitored.
Potential for other medicinal products to affect Harvoni
Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir are substrates of drug transporter P-gp and BCRP while GS-331007 is not. Medicinal products that are potent P-gp inducers (e.g. rifampicin, St. John's wort, carbamazepine and phenytoin) may decrease ledipasvir and sofosbuvir plasma concentrations leading to reduced therapeutic effect of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and should not be used with Harvoni (see sections 4.3 and 4.4). Co-administration with medicinal products that inhibit P-gp and/or BCRP may increase ledipasvir and sofosbuvir plasma concentrations without increasing GS-331007 plasma concentration; Harvoni may be co-administered with P-gp and/or BCRP inhibitors. Clinically significant medicinal product interactions with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir mediated by CYP450s or UGT1A1 enzymes are not expected.
Interactions between Harvoni and other medicinal products
Table 3 provides a listing of established or potentially clinically significant medicinal product interactions (where 90% confidence interval [CI] of the geometric least-squares mean [GLSM] ratio were within “↔”, extended above “↑”, or extended below “↓” the predetermined equivalence boundaries). The medicinal product interactions described are based on studies conducted with either ledipasvir/sofosbuvir or ledipasvir and sofosbuvir as individual agents, or are predicted medicinal product interactions that may occur with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. The table is not all-inclusive.
Table 3: Interactions between Harvoni and other medicinal products

Medicinal product by therapeutic areas

Effects on medicinal product levels.

Mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for AUC, Cmax, Cmina, b

Recommendation concerning co-administration with Harvoni

ACID REDUCING AGENTS

 

Ledipasvir solubility decreases as pH increases. Medicinal products that increase gastric pH are expected to decrease concentration of ledipasvir.

Antacids

 

e.g. Aluminium or magnesium hydroxide; calcium carbonate

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↓ Ledipasvir

↔ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

(Increase in gastric pH)

It is recommended to separate antacid and Harvoni administration by 4 hours.

H2-receptor antagonists

 

Famotidine

(40 mg single dose)/ ledipasvir (90 mg single dose)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)c, d

Famotidine dosed simultaneously with Harvonid

Cimetidinee

Nizatidinee

Ranitidinee

Ledipasvir

↓ Cmax 0.80 (0.69, 0.93)

↔ AUC 0.89 (0.76, 1.06)

Sofosbuvir

↑ Cmax 1.15 (0.88, 1.50)

↔ AUC 1.11 (1.00, 1.24)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.06 (0.97, 1.14)

↔ AUC 1.06 (1.02, 1.11)

(Increase in gastric pH)

H2-receptor antagonists may be administered simultaneously with or staggered from Harvoni at a dose that does not exceed doses comparable to famotidine 40 mg twice daily.

Famotidine

(40 mg single dose)/ ledipasvir (90 mg single dose)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)c, d

Famotidine dosed 12 hours prior to Harvonid

Ledipasvir

↓ Cmax 0.83 (0.69, 1.00)

↔ AUC 0.98 (0.80, 1.20)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.00 (0.76, 1.32)

↔ AUC 0.95 (0.82, 1.10)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.13 (1.07, 1.20)

↔ AUC 1.06 (1.01, 1.12)

(Increase in gastric pH)

Proton pump inhibitors

 

Omeprazole

(20 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg single dose)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)c

Omeprazole dosed simultaneously with Harvoni

Lansoprazolee

Rabeprazolee

Pantoprazolee

Esomeprazolee

Ledipasvir

↓ Cmax 0.89 (0.61, 1.30)

↓ AUC 0.96 (0.66, 1.39)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.12 (0.88, 1.42)

↔ AUC 1.00 (0.80, 1.25)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.14 (1.01, 1.29)

↔ AUC 1.03 (0.96, 1.12)

(Increase in gastric pH)

Proton pump inhibitor doses comparable to omeprazole 20 mg can be administered simultaneously with Harvoni. Proton pump inhibitors should not be taken before Harvoni.

ANTIARRHYTHMICS

Digoxin

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↑ Digoxin

↔ Ledipasvir

↔ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

(Inhibition of P-gp)

Co-administration of Harvoni with digoxin may increase the concentration of digoxin. Caution is warranted and therapeutic concentration monitoring of digoxin is recommended when co-administered with Harvoni.

ANTICOAGULANTS

Dabigatran etexilate

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↑ Dabigatran

↔ Ledipasvir

↔ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

(Inhibition of P-gp)

Clinical monitoring, looking for signs of bleeding and anaemia, is recommended when dabigatran etexilate is co-administered with Harvoni. A coagulation test helps to identify patients with an increased bleeding risk due to increased dabigatran exposure.

ANTICONVULSANTS

Carbamazepine

Phenytoin

Phenobarbital

Oxcarbazepine

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↓ Ledipasvir

↓ Sofosbuvir

↓ GS-331007

(Induction of P-gp)

Co-administration of Harvoni with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital or oxcarbazepine is expected to decrease the concentration of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir which may lead to reduced therapeutic effect of Harvoni. Harvoni should not be used with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital or oxcarbazepine.

ANTIMYCOBACTERIALS

Rifampicin (600 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg single dose)d

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

Rifampicin

↔ Cmax

↔ AUC

↔ Cmin

Observed:

Ledipasvir

↓ Cmax 0.65 (0.56, 0.76)

↓ AUC 0.41 (0.36, 0.48)

(Induction of P-gp)

Harvoni should not be used with rifampicin, a potent P-gp inducer (see section 4.4).

Co-administration of Harvoni with rifabutin or rifapentine is expected to decrease the concentration of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, leading to reduced therapeutic effect of Harvoni. Such co-administration is not recommended.

Rifampicin (600 mg once daily)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)d

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

Rifampicin

↔ Cmax

↔ AUC

↔ Cmin

Observed:

Sofosbuvir

↓ Cmax 0.23 (0.19, 0.29)

↓ AUC 0.28 (0.24, 0.32)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.23 (1.14, 1.34)

↔ AUC 0.95 (0.88, 1.03)

(Induction of P-gp)

Rifabutin

Rifapentine

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↓ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

(Induction of P-gp)

HCV PRODUCTS

Simeprevir (150 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (30 mg once daily)

Simeprevir

↑ Cmax 2.61 (2.39, 2.86)

↑ AUC 2.69 (2.44, 2.96)

Ledipasvir

↑ Cmax 1.81 (1.69, 2.94)

↑ AUC 1.92 (1.77, 2.07)

Concentrations of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and simeprevir are increased when simeprevir is co-administered with Harvoni. Co-administration is not recommended.

Simeprevirh

Simeprevir

↔ Cmax 0.96 (0.71, 1.30)

↔ AUC 0.94 (0.67, 1.33)

Sofosbuvir

↑ Cmax 1.91 (1.26, 2.90)

↑ AUC 3.16 (2.25, 4.44)

GS-331007

↓ Cmax 0.69 (0.52, 0.93)

↔ AUC 1.09 (0.87, 1.37)

HIV ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS

Efavirenz/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

(600 mg/ 200 mg/ 300 mg/ once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Efavirenz

↔ Cmax 0.87 (0.79, 0.97)

↔ AUC 0.90 (0.84, 0.96)

↔ Cmin 0.91 (0.83, 0.99)

Emtricitabine

↔ Cmax 1.08 (0.97, 1.21)

↔ AUC 1.05 (0.98, 1.11)

↔ Cmin 1.04 (0.98, 1.11)

Tenofovir

↑ Cmax 1.79 (1.56, 2.04)

↑ AUC 1.98 (1.77, 2.23)

↑ Cmin 2.63 (2.32, 2.97)

Ledipasvir

↓ Cmax 0.66 (0.59, 0.75)

↓ AUC 0.66 (0.59, 0.75)

↓ Cmin 0.66 (0.57, 0.76)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.03 (0.87, 1.23)

↔ AUC 0.94 (0.81, 1.10)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 0.86 (0.76, 0.96)

↔ AUC 0.90 (0.83, 0.97)

↔ Cmin 1.07 (1.02, 1.13)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or efavirenz/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is required.

Emtricitabine/ rilpivirine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

(200 mg/ 25 mg/ 300 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Emtricitabine

↔ Cmax 1.02 (0.98, 1.06)

↔ AUC 1.05 (1.02, 1.08)

↔ Cmin 1.06 (0.97, 1.15)

Rilpivirine

↔ Cmax 0.97 (0.88, 1.07)

↔ AUC 1.02 (0.94, 1.11)

↔ Cmin 1.12 (1.03, 1.21)

Tenofovir

↔ Cmax 1.32 (1.25, 1.39)

↑ AUC 1.40 (1.31, 1.50)

↑ Cmin 1.91 (1.74, 2.10)

Ledipasvir

↔ Cmax 1.01 (0.95, 1.07)

↔ AUC 1.08 (1.02, 1.15)

↔ Cmin 1.16 (1.08, 1.25)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.05 (0.93, 1.20)

↔ AUC 1.10 (1.01, 1.21)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.06 (1.01, 1.11)

↔ AUC 1.15 (1.11, 1.19)

↔ Cmin 1.18 (1.13, 1.24)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or emtricitabine/ rilpivirine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is required.

Abacavir/ lamivudine

(600 mg/ 300 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Abacavir

↔ Cmax 0.92 (0.87, 0.97)

↔ AUC 0.90 (0.85, 0.94)

Lamivudine

↔ Cmax 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)

↔ AUC 0.94 (0.90, 0.98)

↔ Cmin 1.12 (1.05, 1.20)

Ledipasvir

↔ Cmax 1.10 (1.01, 1.19)

↔ AUC 1.18 (1.10, 1.28)

↔ Cmin 1.26 (1.17, 1.36)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.08 (0.85, 1.35)

↔ AUC 1.21 (1.09, 1.35)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.00 (0.94, 1.07)

↔ AUC 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)

↔ Cmin 1.08 (1.01, 1.14)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or abacavir/ lamivudine is required.

HIV ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: HIV PROTEASE INHIBITORS

Atazanavir boosted with ritonavir

(300 mg/ 100 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Atazanavir

↔ Cmax 1.07 (1.00, 1.15)

↔ AUC 1.33 (1.25, 1.42)

↑ Cmin 1.75 (1.58, 1.93)

Ledipasvir

↑ Cmax 1.98 (1.78, 2.20)

↑ AUC 2.13 (1.89, 2.40)

↑ Cmin 2.36 (2.08, 2.67)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 0.96 (0.88, 1.05)

↔ AUC 1.08 (1.02, 1.15)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.13 (1.08, 1.19)

↔ AUC 1.23 (1.18, 1.29)

↔ Cmin 1.28 (1.21, 1.36)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or atazanavir (ritonavir boosted) is required.

For the combination of tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir, please see below.

Atazanavir boosted with ritonavir (300 mg/ 100 mg once daily) + emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (200 mg/ 300 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Dosed simultaneouslyf

Atazanavir

↔ Cmax 1.07 (0.99, 1.14)

↔ AUC 1.27 (1.18, 1.37)

↑ Cmin 1.63 (1.45, 1.84)

Ritonavir

↔ Cmax 0.86 (0.79, 0.93)

↔ AUC 0.97 (0.89, 1.05)

↑ Cmin 1.45 (1.27, 1.64)

Emtricitabine

↔ Cmax 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)

↔ AUC 1.00 (0.97, 1.04)

↔ Cmin 1.04 (0.96, 1.12)

Tenofovir

↑ Cmax 1.47 (1.37, 1.58)

↔ AUC 1.35 (1.29, 1.42)

↑ Cmin 1.47 (1.38, 1.57)

Ledipasvir

↑ Cmax 1.68 (1.54, 1.84)

↑ AUC 1.96 (1.74, 2.21)

↑ Cmin 2.18 (1.91, 2.50)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 1.01 (0.88, 1.15)

↔ AUC 1.11 (1.02, 1.21)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.17 (1.12, 1.23)

↔ AUC 1.31 (1.25, 1.36)

↑ Cmin 1.42 (1.34, 1.49)

When given with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate used in conjunction with atazanavir/ritonavir, Harvoni increased the concentration of tenofovir.

The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Harvoni and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Atazanavir concentrations are also increased, with a risk for an increase in bilirubin levels/icterus. That risk is even higher if ribavirin is used as part of the HCV treatment.

Darunavir boosted with ritonavir

(800 mg/ 100 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)d

Darunavir

↔ Cmax 1.02 (0.88, 1.19)

↔ AUC 0.96 (0.84, 1.11)

↔ Cmin 0.97 (0.86, 1.10)

Ledipasvir

↑ Cmax 1.45 (1.34, 1.56)

↑ AUC 1.39 (1.28, 1.49)

↑ Cmin 1.39 (1.29, 1.51)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or darunavir (ritonavir boosted) is required.

For the combination of tenofovir/emtricitabine + darunavir/ritonavir, please see below.

Darunavir boosted with ritonavir

(800 mg/ 100 mg once daily)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)

Darunavir

↔ Cmax 0.97 (0.94, 1.01)

↔ AUC 0.97 (0.94, 1.00)

↔ Cmin 0.86 (0.78, 0.96)

Sofosbuvir

↑ Cmax 1.45 (1.10, 1.92)

↑ AUC 1.34 (1.12, 1.59)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 0.97 (0.90, 1.05)

↔ AUC 1.24 (1.18, 1.30)

Darunavir boosted with ritonavir (800 mg/ 100 mg once daily) + emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (200 mg/ 300 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c, d

Dosed simultaneouslyf

Darunavir

↔ Cmax 1.01 (0.96, 1.06)

↔ AUC 1.04 (0.99, 1.08)

↔ Cmin 1.08 (0.98, 1.20)

Ritonavir

↔ Cmax 1.17 (1.01, 1.35)

↔ AUC 1.25 (1.15, 1.36)

↑ Cmin 1.48 (1.34, 1.63)

Emtricitabine

↔ Cmax 1.02 (0.96, 1.08)

↔ AUC 1.04 (1.00, 1.08)

↔ Cmin 1.03 (0.97, 1.10)

Tenofovir

↑ Cmax 1.64 (1.54, 1.74)

↑ AUC 1.50 (1.42, 1.59)

↑ Cmin 1.59 (1.49, 1.70)

Ledipasvir

↔ Cmax 1.11 (0.99, 1.24)

↔ AUC 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)

↔ Cmin 1.17 (1.04, 1.31)

Sofosbuvir

↓ Cmax 0.63 (0.52, 0.75)

↓ AUC 0.73 (0.65, 0.82)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.10 (1.04, 1.16)

↔ AUC 1.20 (1.16, 1.24)

↔ Cmin 1.26 (1.20, 1.32)

When given with darunavir/ritonavir used in conjunction with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Harvoni increased the concentration of tenofovir.

The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Harvoni and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir + emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↑ Lopinavir

↑ Ritonavir

↔ Emtricitabine

↑ Tenofovir

↑ Ledipasvir

↔ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

When given with lopinavir/ritonavir used in conjunction with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Harvoni is expected to increase the concentration of tenofovir.

The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Harvoni and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Tipranavir boosted with ritonavir

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↓ Ledipasvir

↓ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

(Induction of P-gp)

Co-administration of Harvoni with tipranavir (ritonavir boosted) is expected to decrease the concentration of ledipasvir, leading to reduced therapeutic effect of Harvoni. Co-administration is not recommended.

HIV ANTIVIRAL AGENTS: INTEGRASE INHIBITORS

Raltegravir

(400 mg twice daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)d

Raltegravir

↓ Cmax 0.82 (0.66, 1.02)

↔ AUC 0.85 (0.70, 1.02)

↑ Cmin 1.15 (0.90, 1.46)

Ledipasvir

↔ Cmax 0.92 (0.85, 1.00)

↔ AUC 0.91 (0.84, 1.00)

↔ Cmin 0.89 (0.81, 0.98)

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or raltegravir is required.

Raltegravir

(400 mg twice daily)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)d

Raltegravir

↓ Cmax 0.57 (0.44, 0.75)

↓ AUC 0.73 (0.59, 0.91)

↔ Cmin 0.95 (0.81, 1.12)

Sofosbuvir

↔ Cmax 0.87 (0.71, 1.08)

↔ AUC 0.95 (0.82, 1.09)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 1.09 (0.99, 1.19)

↔ AUC 1.02 (0.97, 1.08)

Elvitegravir/ cobicistat/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

(150 mg/ 150 mg/ 200 mg/ 300 mg once daily)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)c/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)c

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↔ Emtricitabine

↑ Tenofovir

Observed:

Elvitegravir

↔ Cmax 0.88 (0.82, 0.95)

↔ AUC 1.02 (0.95, 1.09)

↑ Cmin 1.36 (1.23, 1.49)

Cobicistat

↔ Cmax 1.25 (1.18, 1.32)

↑ AUC 1.59 (1.49, 1.70)

↑ Cmin 4.25 (3.47, 5.22)

Ledipasvir

↑ Cmax 1.63 (1.51, 1.75)

↑ AUC 1.78 (1.64, 1.94)

↑ Cmin 1.91 (1.76, 2.08)

Sofosbuvir

↑ Cmax 1.33 (1.14, 1.56)

↑ AUC 1.36 (1.21, 1.52)

GS-331007

↑ Cmax 1.33 (1.22, 1.44)

↑ AUC 1.44 (1.41, 1.48)

↑ Cmin 1.53 (1.47, 1.59)

When given with elvitegravir/ cobicistat/ emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Harvoni is expected to increase the concentration of tenofovir.

The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Harvoni and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (e.g. ritonavir or cobicistat) has not been established.

The combination should be used with caution with frequent renal monitoring, if other alternatives are not available (see section 4.4).

Dolutegravir

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↔ Dolutegravir

↔ Ledipasvir

↔ Sofosbuvir

↔ GS-331007

No dose adjustment required.

HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS

St. John's wort

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↓ Ledipasvir

↓ Sofosbuvir

↓ GS-331007

(Induction of P-gp)

Co-administration of Harvoni with St. John's wort is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

HMG-CoA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS

Rosuvastating

↑ Rosuvastatin

(Inhibition of drug transporters OATP and BCRP)

Co-administration of Harvoni with rosuvastatin may significantly increase the concentration of rosuvastatin (several fold-increase in AUC) which is associated with increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. Co-administration of Harvoni with rosuvastatin is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

Pravastating

↑ Pravastatin

Co-administration of Harvoni with pravastatin may significantly increase the concentration of pravastatin which is associated with increased risk of myopathy. Clinical and biochemical control is recommended in these patients and a dose adjustment may be needed (see section 4.4).

Other statins

Expected:

↑ Statins

Interactions cannot be excluded with other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. When co-administered with Harvoni, a reduced dose of statins should be considered and careful monitoring for statin adverse reactions should be undertaken (see section 4.4).

NARCOTIC ANALGESICS

Methadone

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↔ Ledipasvir

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or methadone is required.

Methadone

(Methadone maintenance therapy [30 to 130 mg/daily])/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)d

R-methadone

↔ Cmax 0.99 (0.85, 1.16)

↔ AUC 1.01 (0.85, 1.21)

↔ Cmin 0.94 (0.77, 1.14)

S-methadone

↔ Cmax 0.95 (0.79, 1.13)

↔ AUC 0.95 (0.77, 1.17)

↔ Cmin 0.95 (0.74, 1.22)

Sofosbuvir

↓ Cmax 0.95 (0.68, 1.33)

↑ AUC 1.30 (1.00, 1.69)

GS-331007

↓ Cmax 0.73 (0.65, 0.83)

↔ AUC 1.04 (0.89, 1.22)

IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS

Ciclosporing

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↑ Ledipasvir

↔ Ciclosporin

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or ciclosporin is required.

Ciclosporin

(600 mg single dose)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)h

Ciclosporin

↔ Cmax 1.06 (0.94, 1.18)

↔ AUC 0.98 (0.85, 1.14)

Sofosbuvir

↑ Cmax 2.54 (1.87, 3.45)

↑ AUC 4.53 (3.26, 6.30)

GS-331007

↓ Cmax 0.60 (0.53, 0.69)

↔ AUC 1.04 (0.90, 1.20)

Tacrolimus

Interaction not studied.

Expected:

↔ Ledipasvir

No dose adjustment of Harvoni or tacrolimus is required.

Tacrolimus

(5 mg single dose)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg single dose)h

Tacrolimus

↓ Cmax 0.73 (0.59, 0.90)

↑ AUC 1.09 (0.84, 1.40)

Sofosbuvir

↓ Cmax 0.97 (0.65, 1.43)

↑ AUC 1.13 (0.81, 1.57)

GS-331007

↔ Cmax 0.97 (0.83, 1.14)

↔ AUC 1.00 (0.87, 1.13)

ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

Norgestimate/ ethinyl estradiol (norgestimate 0.180 mg/ 0.215 mg/ 0.25 mg/ ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg)/ ledipasvir (90 mg once daily)d

Norelgestromin

↔ Cmax 1.02 (0.89, 1.16)

↔ AUC 1.03 (0.90, 1.18)

↔ Cmin 1.09 (0.91, 1.31)

Norgestrel

↔ Cmax 1.03 (0.87, 1.23)

↔ AUC 0.99 (0.82, 1.20)

↔ Cmin 1.00 (0.81, 1.23)

Ethinyl estradiol

↑ Cmax 1.40 (1.18, 1.66)

↔ AUC 1.20 (1.04, 1.39)

↔ Cmin 0.98 (0.79, 1.22)

No dose adjustment of oral contraceptives is required.

Norgestimate/ ethinyl estradiol (norgestimate 0.180 mg/ 0.215 mg/ 0.25 mg/ ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg)/ sofosbuvir (400 mg once daily)d

Norelgestromin

↔ Cmax 1.07 (0.94, 1.22)

↔ AUC 1.06 (0.92, 1.21)

↔ Cmin 1.07 (0.89, 1.28)

Norgestrel

↔ Cmax 1.18 (0.99, 1.41)

↑ AUC 1.19 (0.98, 1.45)

↑ Cmin 1.23 (1.00, 1.51)

Ethinyl estradiol

↔ Cmax 1.15 (0.97, 1.36)

↔ AUC 1.09 (0.94, 1.26)

↔ Cmin 0.99 (0.80, 1.23)

a. Mean ratio (90% CI) of co-administered drug pharmacokinetics of study medicinal products alone or in combination. No effect = 1.00.
b. All interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers.
c. Administered as Harvoni.
d. Lack of pharmacokinetics interaction bounds 70-143%.
e. These are drugs within class where similar interactions could be predicted.
f. Staggered administration (12 hours apart) of atazanavir/ritonavir + emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or darunavir/ritonavir + emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Harvoni provided similar results.
g. This study was conducted in the presence of another two direct-acting antiviral agents.
h. Bioequivalence/Equivalence boundary 80-125%.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Women of childbearing potential / contraception in males and females
When Harvoni is used in combination with ribavirin, extreme care must be taken to avoid pregnancy in female patients and in female partners of male patients. Significant teratogenic and/or embryocidal effects have been demonstrated in all animal species exposed to ribavirin. Women of childbearing potential or their male partners must use an effective form of contraception during treatment and for a period of time after the treatment has concluded as recommended in the Summary of Product Characteristics for ribavirin. Refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics for ribavirin for additional information.
Pregnancy
There are no or limited amount of data (less than 300 pregnancy outcomes) from the use of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir or Harvoni in pregnant women.
Animal studies do not indicate direct harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity. No significant effects on foetal development have been observed with ledipasvir or sofosbuvir in rats and rabbits. However, it has not been possible to fully estimate exposure margins achieved for sofosbuvir in the rat relative to the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose (see section 5.3).
As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of Harvoni during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding
It is unknown whether ledipasvir or sofosbuvir and its metabolites are excreted in human milk.
Available pharmacokinetic data in animals has shown excretion of ledipasvir and metabolites of sofosbuvir in milk (see section 5.3).
A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Therefore, Harvoni should not be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility
No human data on the effect of Harvoni on fertility are available. Animal studies do not indicate harmful effects of ledipasvir or sofosbuvir on fertility.
If ribavirin is co-administered with Harvoni, the contraindications regarding use of ribavirin during pregnancy and breast-feeding apply (see also the Summary of Product Characteristics for ribavirin).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Harvoni (administered alone or in combination with ribavirin) has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. However, patients should be advised that fatigue was more common in patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir compared to placebo.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
The safety assessment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is based on pooled data from three Phase 3 clinical studies including 215, 539 and 326 patients who received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively; and 216, 328 and 328 patients who received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin combination therapy for 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. These studies did not include any control group not receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Further data include a double-blind comparison of the safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (12 weeks) and placebo in 155 cirrhotic patients.
The proportion of patients who permanently discontinued treatment due to adverse events was 0%, < 1% and 1% for patients receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively; and < 1%, 0%, and 2% for patients receiving ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin combination therapy for 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively.
In clinical studies, fatigue and headache were more common in patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir compared to placebo. When ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was studied with ribavirin, the most frequent adverse drug reactions to ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin combination therapy were consistent with the known safety profile of ribavirin, without increasing the frequency or severity of the expected adverse drug reactions.
The following adverse drug reactions have been identified with Harvoni (Table 4). The adverse reactions are listed below by body system organ class and frequency. Frequencies are defined as follows: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000) or very rare (< 1/10,000).
Table 4: Adverse drug reactions identified with Harvoni

Frequency

Harvoni

Nervous system disorders:

Very common

headache

General disorders:

Very common

fatigue

Paediatric population
The safety and efficacy of Harvoni in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system:
United Kingdom
Yellow Card Scheme
Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard
Ireland
HPRA Pharmacovigilance
Earlsfort Terrace
IRL - Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971
Fax: +353 1 6762517
Website: www.hpra.ie
e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie
Malta
ADR Reporting
The Medicines Authority
Post-Licensing Directorate
203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens
GŻR-1368 Gżira
Website: www.medicinesauthority.gov.mt
e-mail: postlicensing.medicinesauthority@gov.mt
4.9 Overdose
The highest documented doses of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir were 120 mg twice daily for 10 days and a single dose of 1,200 mg, respectively. In these healthy volunteer studies, there were no untoward effects observed at these dose levels, and adverse reactions were similar in frequency and severity to those reported in the placebo groups. The effects of higher doses are not known.
No specific antidote is available for overdose with Harvoni. If overdose occurs the patient must be monitored for evidence of toxicity. Treatment of overdose with Harvoni consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs as well as observation of the clinical status of the patient. Haemodialysis is unlikely to result in significant removal of ledipasvir as ledipasvir is highly bound to plasma protein. Haemodialysis can efficiently remove the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir, GS-331007, with an extraction ratio of 53%.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Direct-acting antiviral, ATC code: not yet assigned
Mechanism of action
Ledipasvir is a HCV inhibitor targeting the HCV NS5A protein, which is essential for both RNA replication and the assembly of HCV virions. Biochemical confirmation of NS5A inhibition by ledipasvir is not currently possible as NS5A has no enzymatic function. In vitro resistance selection and cross-resistance studies indicate ledipasvir targets NS5A as its mode of action.
Sofosbuvir is a pan-genotypic inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is essential for viral replication. Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide prodrug that undergoes intracellular metabolism to form the pharmacologically active uridine analogue triphosphate (GS-461203), which can be incorporated into HCV RNA by the NS5B polymerase and acts as a chain terminator. GS-461203 (the active metabolite of sofosbuvir) is neither an inhibitor of human DNA and RNA polymerases nor an inhibitor of mitochondrial RNA polymerase.
Antiviral activity
The EC50 values of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir against full-length or chimeric replicons encoding NS5A and NS5B sequences from clinical isolates are detailed in Table 5. The presence of 40% human serum had no effect on the anti-HCV activity of sofosbuvir but reduced the anti-HCV activity of ledipasvir by 12-fold against genotype 1a HCV replicons.
Table 5: Activity of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir against chimeric replicons

Genotype replicons

Ledipasvir activity (EC50, nM)

Sofosbuvir activity (EC50, nM)

Stable replicons

NS5A transient replicons

Median (range)a

Stable replicons

NS5B transient replicons

Median (range)a

Genotype 1a

0.031

0.018 (0.009-0.085)

40

62 (29-128)

Genotype 1b

0.004

0.006 (0.004-0.007)

110

102 (45-170)

Genotype 2a

21-249

-

50

29 (14-81)

Genotype 2b

16-530b

-

15b

-

Genotype 3a

168

-

50

81 (24-181)

Genotype 4a

0.39

-

40

-

Genotype 4d

0.60

-

-

-

Genotype 5a

0.15b

-

15b

-

Genotype 6a

1.1b

-

14b

-

Genotype 6e

264b

-

-

-

a. Transient replicons carrying NS5A or NS5B from patient isolates.
b. The chimeric replicons carrying NS5A genes from genotype 2b, 5a, 6a and 6e were used for testing ledipasvir while the chimeric replicons carrying NS5B genes from genotype 2b, 5a or 6a were used for testing sofosbuvir.
Resistance
In cell culture
HCV replicons with reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir have been selected in cell culture for genotype 1a and 1b. Reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir was associated with the primary NS5A substitution Y93H in both genotype 1a and 1b. Additionally a Q30E substitution developed in genotype 1a replicons. Site-directed mutagenesis of NS5A RAVs showed that substitutions conferring a fold-change > 100 and ≤ 1,000 in ledipasvir susceptibility are Q30H/R, L31I/M/V, P32L and Y93T in genotype 1a and P58D and Y93S in genotype 1b; and substitutions conferring a fold-change > 1,000 are M28A/G, Q30E/G/K, H58D, Y93C/H/N/S in genotype 1a and A92K and Y93H in genotype 1b.
HCV replicons with reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir have been selected in cell culture for multiple genotypes including 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a and 6a. Reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir was associated with the primary NS5B substitution S282T in all replicon genotypes examined. Site-directed mutagenesis of the S282T substitution in replicons of 8 genotypes conferred 2- to 18-fold reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir and reduced the viral replication capacity by 89% to 99% compared to the corresponding wild-type.
In clinical studies
In a pooled analysis of patients who received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in Phase 3 studies, 37 patients (29 with genotype 1a and 8 with genotype 1b) qualified for resistance analysis due to virologic failure or early study drug discontinuation and having HCV RNA > 1,000 IU/mL. Post-baseline NS5A and NS5B deep sequencing data (assay cut off of 1%) were available for 37/37 and 36/37 patients, respectively.
NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were observed in post-baseline isolates from 29/37 patients (22/29 genotype 1a and 7/8 genotype 1b) not achieving sustained virologic response (SVR). Of the 29 genotype 1a patients who qualified for resistance testing, 22/29 (76%) patients harboured one or more NS5A RAVs at positions K24, M28, Q30, L31, S38 and Y93 at failure, while the remaining 7/29 patients had no NS5A RAVs detected at failure. The most common variants were Q30R, Y93H and L31M. Of the 8 genotype 1b patients who qualified for resistance testing, 7/8 (88%) harboured one or more NS5A RAVs at positions L31 and Y93 at failure, while 1/8 patients had no NS5A RAVs at failure. The most common variant was Y93H. Among the 8 patients who had no NS5A RAVs at failure, 7 patients received 8 weeks of treatment (n = 3 with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir; n = 4 with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin) and 1 patient received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. In phenotypic analyses, post-baseline isolates from patients who harboured NS5A RAVs at failure showed 20- to at least a 243-fold (the highest dose tested) reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Y93H substitution in both genotype 1a and 1b as well as the Q30R and L31M substitution in genotype 1a conferred high levels of reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir (fold-change in EC50 ranging from 544-fold to 1,677-fold).
The sofosbuvir resistance-associated substitution S282T in NS5B was not detected in any virologic failure isolate from the Phase 3 studies. However, the NS5B S282T substitution in combination with NS5A substitutions L31M, Y93H and Q30L were detected in one patient at failure following 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir from a Phase 2 study (LONESTAR). This patient was subsequently retreated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 24 weeks and achieved SVR following retreatment.
Effect of baseline HCV resistance-associated variants on treatment outcome
Analyses were conducted to explore the association between pre-existing baseline NS5A RAVs and treatment outcome. In the pooled analysis of the Phase 3 studies, 16% of patients had baseline NS5A RAVs identified by population or deep sequencing irrespective of subtype. Baseline NS5A RAVs were overrepresented in patients who experienced relapse in the Phase 3 studies (see “Clinical efficacy and safety”).
Following 12 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (without ribavirin) in treatment-experienced patients (arm 1 of ION-2 study) 4/4 patients with baseline NS5A RAVs conferring a ledipasvir fold-change of ≤ 100 achieved SVR. For the same treatment arm, patients with baseline NS5A RAVs conferring a fold-change of > 100, relapse occurred in 4/13 (31%), as compared to 3/95 (3%) in those without any baseline RAVs or RAVs conferring a fold-change of ≤ 100.
The group of NS5A RAVs that conferred > 100-fold shift and was observed in patients were the following substitutions in genotype 1a (M28A, Q30H/R/E, L31M/V/I, H58D, Y93H/N/C) or in genotype 1b (Y93H). The proportion of such baseline NS5A RAVs seen with deep sequencing varied from very low (cut off for assay = 1%) to high (main part of the plasma population).
The sofosbuvir resistance-associated substitution S282T was not detected in the baseline NS5B sequence of any patient in Phase 3 studies by population or deep sequencing. SVR was achieved in all 24 patients (n = 20 with L159F+C316N; n = 1 with L159F; and n = 3 with N142T) who had baseline variants associated with resistance to NS5B nucleoside inhibitors.
Cross-resistance
Ledipasvir was fully active against the sofosbuvir resistance-associated substitution S282T in NS5B while all ledipasvir resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A were fully susceptible to sofosbuvir. Both sofosbuvir and ledipasvir were fully active against substitutions associated with resistance to other classes of direct-acting antivirals with different mechanisms of actions, such as NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitors and NS3 protease inhibitors. NS5A substitutions conferring resistance to ledipasvir may reduce the antiviral activity of other NS5A inhibitors.
Clinical efficacy and safety
The efficacy of Harvoni (ledipasvir [LDV]/sofosbuvir [SOF]) was evaluated in three open-label Phase 3 studies with data available for a total of 1,950 patients with genotype 1 CHC. The three Phase 3 studies included one study conducted in non-cirrhotic treatment-naïve patients (ION-3); one study in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic treatment-naïve patients (ION-1); and one study in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients who failed prior therapy with an interferon-based regimen, including regimens containing an HCV protease inhibitor (ION-2). Patients in these studies had compensated liver disease. All three Phase 3 studies evaluated the efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin.
Treatment duration was fixed in each study. Serum HCV RNA values were measured during the clinical studies using the COBAS TaqMan HCV test (version 2.0), for use with the High Pure System. The assay had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 25 IU/mL. SVR was the primary endpoint to determine the HCV cure rate which was defined as HCV RNA less than LLOQ at 12 weeks after the cessation of treatment.
Treatment-naïve adults without cirrhosis – ION-3 (study 0108) – Genotype 1
ION-3 evaluated 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin and 12 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in treatment-naïve non-cirrhotic patients with genotype 1 CHC. Patients were randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to one of the three treatment groups and stratified by HCV genotype (1a versus 1b).
Table 6: Demographics and baseline characteristics in study ION-3

Patient disposition

LDV/SOF

8 weeks

(n = 215)

LDV/SOF+RBV

8 weeks

(n = 216)

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 216)

TOTAL

(n = 647)

Age (years): median (range)

53 (22-75)

51 (21-71)

53 (20-71)

52 (20-75)

Male gender

60% (130)

54% (117)

59% (128)

58% (375)

Race: Black/ African American

21% (45)

17% (36)

19% (42)

19% (123)

White

76% (164)

81% (176)

77% (167)

78% (507)

Genotype 1a

80% (171)

80% (172)

80% (172)

80% (515)a

IL28CC genotype

26% (56)

28% (60)

26% (56)

27% (172)

FibroTest-Determined Metavir scoreb

F0-F1

33% (72)

38% (81)

33% (72)

35% (225)

F2

30% (65)

28% (61)

30% (65)

30% (191)

F3-F4

36% (77)

33% (71)

37% (79)

35% (227)

Not interpretable

< 1% (1)

1% (3)

0% (0)

< 1% (4)

a. One patient in the LDV/SOF 8-week treatment arm did not have a confirmed genotype 1 subtype.
b. Non-missing FibroTest results are mapped to Metavir scores according to: 0-0.31 = F0-F1; 0.32-0.58 = F2; 0.59-1.00 = F3-F4.
Table 7: Response rates in study ION-3

LDV/SOF

8 weeks

(n = 215)

LDV/SOF+RBV

8 weeks

(n = 216)

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 216)

SVR

94% (202/215)

93% (201/216)

96% (208/216)

Outcome for patients without SVR

On-treatment virologic failure

0/215

0/216

0/216

Relapsea

5% (11/215)

4% (9/214)

1% (3/216)

Otherb

< 1% (2/215)

3% (6/216)

2% (5/216)

Genotype

Genotype 1a

93% (159/171)

92% (159/172)

96% (165/172)

Genotype 1b

98% (42/43)

95% (42/44)

98% (43/44)

a. The denominator for relapse is the number of patients with HCV RNA < LLOQ at their last on-treatment assessment.
b. Other includes patients who did not achieve SVR and did not meet virologic failure criteria (e.g. lost to follow-up).
The 8-week treatment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir without ribavirin was non-inferior to the 8-week treatment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with ribavirin (treatment difference 0.9%; 95% confidence interval: -3.9% to 5.7%) and the 12-week treatment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (treatment difference -2.3%; 97.5% confidence interval: -7.2% to 3.6%). Among patients with a baseline HCV RNA < 6 million IU/mL, the SVR was 97% (119/123) with 8-week treatment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and 96% (126/131) with 12-week treatment of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.
Table 8: Relapse rates by baseline characteristics in the ION-3 study, virological failure population*

LDV/SOF

8 weeks

(n = 213)

LDV/SOF+RBV

8 weeks

(n = 210)

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 211)

Gender

Male

8% (10/129)

7% (8/114)

2% (3/127)

Female

1% (1/84)

1% (1/96)

0% (0/84)

IL28 genotype

CC

4% (2/56)

0% (0/57)

0% (0/54)

Non-CC

6% (9/157)

6% (9/153)

2% (3/157)

Baseline HCV RNAa

HCV RNA < 6 million IU/mL

2% (2/121)

2% (3/136)

2% (2/128)

HCV RNA ≥ 6 million IU/mL

10% (9/92)

8% (6/74)

1% (1/83)

* Patients lost to follow-up or who withdrew consent excluded.
a. HCV RNA values were determined using the Roche TaqMan Assay; a patient's HCV RNA may vary from visit to visit.
Treatment-naïve adults with or without cirrhosis – ION-1 (study 0102) – Genotype 1
ION-1 was a randomised, open-label study that evaluated 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in 865 treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 CHC including those with cirrhosis (randomised 1:1:1:1). Randomisation was stratified by the presence or absence of cirrhosis and HCV genotype (1a versus 1b).
Table 9: Demographics and baseline characteristics in study ION-1

Patient disposition

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 214)

LDV/SOF+ RBV

12 weeks

(n = 217)

LDV/SOF

24 weeks

(n = 217)

LDV/SOF+ RBV

24 weeks

(n = 217)

TOTAL

(n = 865)

Age (years): median (range)

52 (18-75)

52 (18-78)

53 (22-80)

53 (24-77)

52 (18-80)

Male gender

59% (127)

59% (128)

64% (139)

55% (119)

59% (513)

Race: Black/ African American

11% (24)

12% (26)

15% (32)

12% (26)

12% (108)

White

87% (187)

87% (188)

82% (177)

84% (183)

85% (735)

Genotype 1aa

68% (145)

68% (148)

67% (146)

66% (143)

67% (582)

IL28CC genotype

26% (55)

35% (76)

24% (52)

34% (73)

30% (256)

FibroTest-Determined Metavir scoreb

F0-F1

27% (57)

26% (56)

29% (62)

30% (66)

28% (241)

F2

26% (56)

25% (55)

22% (47)

28% (60)

25% (218)

F3-F4

47% (100)

48% (104)

49% (107)

42% (91)

46% (402)

Not interpretable

< 1% (1)

1% (2)

< 1% (1)

0% (0)

< 1% (4)

a. Two patients in the LDV/SOF 12-week treatment arm, one patient in the LDV/SOF+RBV 12-week treatment arm, two patients in the LDV/SOF 24-week treatment arm, and two patients in the LDV/SOF+RBV 24-week treatment arm did not have a confirmed genotype 1 subtype.
b. Non-missing FibroTest results are mapped to Metavir scores according to: 0-0.31 = F0-F1; 0.32-0.58 = F2; 0.59-1.00 = F3-F4.
Table 10: Response rates in study ION-1

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 214)

LDV/SOF+RBV

12 weeks

(n = 217)

LDV/SOF

24 weeks

(n = 217)

LDV/SOF+RBV

24 weeks

(n = 217)

SVR

99% (210/213)

97% (211/217)

98% (213/217)

99% (215/217)

Outcome for patients without SVR

On-treatment virologic failure

0/213a

0/217

< 1% (1/217)

0/216

Relapseb

< 1% (1/212)

0/217

< 1% (1/215)

0/216

Otherc

< 1% (2/213)

3% (6/217)

< 1% (2/217)

< 1% (2/217)

SVR rates for selected subgroups

Genotype

Genotype 1a

98% (142/145)

97% (143/148)

99% (144/146)

99% (141/143)

Genotype 1b

100% (67/67)

99% (67/68)

97% (67/69)

100% (72/72)

Cirrhosisd

No

99% (176/177)

97% (177/183)

98% (181/184)

99% (178/180)

Yes

94% (32/34)

100% (33/33)

97% (32/33)

100% (36/36)

a. One patient was excluded from the LDV/SOF 12-week treatment arm and one patient was excluded from the LDV/SOF+RBV 24-week treatment arm as both patients were infected with genotype 4 CHC.
b. The denominator for relapse is the number of patients with HCV RNA < LLOQ at their last on-treatment assessment.
c. Other includes patients who did not achieve SVR and did not meet virologic failure criteria (e.g. lost to follow-up).
d. Patients with missing cirrhosis status were excluded from this subgroup analysis.
Previously treated adults with or without cirrhosis – ION-2 (study 0109) – Genotype 1
ION-2 was a randomised, open-label study that evaluated 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin (randomised 1:1:1:1) in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients with or without cirrhosis who failed prior therapy with an interferon-based regimen, including regimens containing an HCV protease inhibitor. Randomisation was stratified by the presence or absence of cirrhosis, HCV genotype (1a versus 1b) and response to prior HCV therapy (relapse/breakthrough versus non-response).
Table 11: Demographics and baseline characteristics in study ION-2

Patient disposition

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

12 weeks

(n = 111)

LDV/SOF

24 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

24 weeks

(n = 111)

TOTAL

(n = 440)

Age (years): median (range)

56 (24-67)

57 (27-75)

56 (25-68)

55 (28-70)

56 (24-75)

Male gender

68% (74)

64% (71)

68% (74)

61% (68)

65% (287)

Race: Black/ African American

22% (24)

14% (16)

16% (17)

18% (20)

18% (77)

White

77% (84)

85% (94)

83% (91)

80% (89)

81% (358)

Genotype 1a

79% (86)

79% (88)

78% (85)

79% (88)

79% (347)

Prior HCV therapy

PEG-IFN+RBV

39% (43)

42% (47)

53% (58)

53% (59)

47% (207)a

HCV protease inhibitor + PEG-IFN+RBV

61% (66)

58% (64)

46% (50)

46% (51)

53% (231)a

IL28CC genotype

9% (10)

10% (11)

14% (16)

16% (18)

13% (55)

FibroTest-Determined Metavir scoreb

F0-F1

14% (15)

10% (11)

12% (13)

16% (18)

13% (57)

F2

28% (31)

26% (29)

28% (31)

30% (33)

28% (124)

F3-F4

58% (63)

64% (71)

58% (63)

54% (60)

58% (257)

Not interpretable

0% (0)

0% (0)

2% (2)

0% (0)

< 1% (2)

a. One patient in the LDV/SOF 24-week treatment arms and one patient in the LDV/SOF+RBV 24-week treatment arm were prior treatment failures of a non-pegylated interferon based regimen.
b. Non-missing FibroTest results are mapped to Metavir scores according to: 0-0.31 = F0-F1; 0.32-0.58 = F2; 0.59-1.00 = F3-F4.
Table 12: Response rates in study ION-2

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

12 weeks

(n = 111)

LDV/SOF

24 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

24 weeks

(n = 111)

SVR

94% (102/109)

96% (107/111)

99% (108/109)

99% (110/111)

Outcome for patients without SVR

On-treatment virologic failure

0/109

0/111

0/109

< 1% (1/111)

Relapsea

6% (7/108)

4% (4/111)

0/109

0/110

Otherb

0/109

0/111

< 1% (1/109)

0/111

SVR rates for selected subgroups

Genotype

Genotype 1a

95% (82/86)

95% (84/88)

99% (84/85)

99% (87/88)

Genotype 1b

87% (20/23)

100% (23/23)

100% (24/24)

100% (23/23)

Cirrhosis

No

95% (83/87)

100% (88/88)c

99% (85/86)c

99% (88/89)

Yesd

86% (19/22)

82% (18/22)

100% (22/22)

100% (22/22)

Prior HCV therapy

PEG-IFN+RBV

93% (40/43)

96% (45/47)

100% (58/58)

98% (58/59)

HCV protease inhibitor + PEG-IFN+RBV

94% (62/66)

97% (62/64)

98% (49/50)

100% (51/51)

a. The denominator for relapse is the number of patients with HCV RNA < LLOQ at their last on-treatment assessment.
b. Other includes patients who did not achieve SVR and did not meet virologic failure criteria (e.g. lost to follow-up).
c. Patients with missing cirrhosis status were excluded from this subgroup analysis.
d. Metavir score = 4 or Ishak score ≥ 5 by liver biopsy, or FibroTest score of > 0.75 and (APRI) of > 2.
Table 13 presents relapse rates with the 12-week regimens (with or without ribavirin) for selected subgroups (see also previous section “Effect of baseline HCV resistance-associated variants on treatment outcome”). In non-cirrhotic patients relapses only occurred in the presence of baseline NS5A RAVs, and during therapy with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir without ribavirin. In cirrhotic patients relapses occurred with both regimens, and in the absence and presence of baseline NS5A RAVs.
Table 13: Relapse rates for selected subgroups in study ION-2

LDV/SOF

12 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

12 weeks

(n = 111)

LDV/SOF

24 weeks

(n = 109)

LDV/SOF+RBV

24 weeks

(n = 111)

Number of responders at end of treatment

108

111

109

110

Cirrhosis

No

5% (4/86)a

0% (0/88)b

0% (0/86)b

0% (0/88)

Yes

14% (3/22)

18% (4/22)

0% (0/22)

0% (0/22)

Presence of baseline NS5A resistance-associated substitutionsc

No

3% (3/91)d

2% (2/94)

0% (0/96)

0% (0/95)f

Yes

24% (4/17)e

12% (2/17)

0% (0/13)

0% (0/14)

a. These 4 non-cirrhotic relapsers all had baseline NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms.
b. Patients with missing cirrhosis status were excluded from this subgroup analysis.
c. Analysis (by deep sequencing) included NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms that conferred > 2.5-fold change in EC50 (K24G/N/R, M28A/G/T, Q30E/G/H/L/K/R/T, L31I/F/M/V, P32L, S38F, H58D, A92K/T, and Y93C/F/H/N/S for genotype 1a and L31I/F/M/V, P32L, P58D, A92K, and Y93C/H/N/S for genotype 1b HCV infection).
d. 3/3 of these patients had cirrhosis.
e. 0/4 of these patients had cirrhosis.
f. One patient who achieved a viral load < LLOQ at end of treatment had missing baseline NS5A data and was excluded from the analysis.
HCV/HIV co-infected adults – ERADICATE
ERADICATE was an open-label study to evaluate 12 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in 50 patients with genotype 1 CHC co-infected with HIV. All patients were treatment-naïve to HCV therapy without cirrhosis, 26% (13/50) of patients were HIV antiretroviral naïve and 74% (37/50) of patients were receiving concomitant HIV antiretroviral therapy. At the time of the interim analysis 40 patients have reached 12 weeks post treatment and SVR12 was 98% (39/40).
Patients awaiting liver transplantation and post-liver transplant – SOLAR-1 (see also section 4.4)
SOLAR-1 is an open-label, multicentre study evaluating 12 and 24 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin in patients with genotype 1 or 4 CHC who have advanced liver disease and/or who have undergone liver transplantation. Seven patient populations are being evaluated (patients with decompensated cirrhosis [CPT B and C] pre-transplant; post-transplant, no cirrhosis; post-transplant CPT A; post-transplant CPT B; post-transplant CPT C; post-transplant fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis).
Preliminary data from the SOLAR-1 study include interim SVR data from a total of 302 genotype 1 patients from across the treatment groups including limited SVR data from 4 patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. An SVR4 rate of approximately 90% was achieved with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (CPT B or C) for both treatment durations studied (12 or 24 weeks). In post-liver transplant patients without decompensated liver disease, SVR4 rates were > 95%. Among patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, all 4 have achieved SVR4.
Clinical efficacy and safety in genotype 3 (see also section 4.4)
In a Phase 2 open-label study, the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were evaluated with or without ribavirin in 51 treatment-naïve patients with genotype 3 HCV infection, with or without cirrhosis. Patients were treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (n = 25) or ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin (n = 26) for 12 weeks. SVR12 rates were 64% (16/25) and 100% (26/26) in the ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin treatment groups, respectively.
Clinical efficacy and safety in genotype 4 (see also section 4.4)
Two patients with genotype 4d HCV infection were enrolled into the ION-1 study. One patient received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks; another patient received ledipasvir/sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 24 weeks. Both achieved SVR12. In a Phase 2 study evaluating ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 12 weeks, 21 genotype 4 patients are being treated. Post-treatment week 12 data is available for 5 patients: all 5 have achieved SVR12. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir have demonstrated in vitro antiviral activity in genotype 4 viral replicons (see above “Antiviral activity”).
Clinical efficacy and safety in other genotypes
Data are currently not available on the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients infected with HCV genotype 2, 5 or 6.
Paediatric population
The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Absorption
Following oral administration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir to HCV-infected patients, ledipasvir median peak plasma concentration was observed at 4.0 hours post-dose. Sofosbuvir was absorbed quickly and the median peak plasma concentrations were observed ~ 1 hour post-dose. Median peak plasma concentration of GS-331007 was observed at 4 hours post-dose.
Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis in HCV-infected patients, geometric mean steady-state AUC0-24 for ledipasvir (n = 2,113), sofosbuvir (n = 1,542), and GS-331007 (n = 2,113) were 7,290, 1,320 and 12,000 ng•h/mL, respectively. Steady-state Cmax for ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and GS-331007 were 323, 618 and 707 ng/mL, respectively. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 AUC0-24 and Cmax were similar in healthy adult subjects and patients with HCV infection. Relative to healthy subjects (n = 191), ledipasvir AUC0-24 and Cmax were 24% lower and 32% lower, respectively, in HCV-infected patients. Ledipasvir AUC is dose proportional over the dose range of 3 to 100 mg. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 AUCs are near dose proportional over the dose range of 200 mg to 400 mg.
Effects of food
Relative to fasting conditions, the administration of a single dose of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with a moderate fat or high fat meal increased the sofosbuvir AUC0-inf by approximately 2-fold, but did not significantly affect the sofosbuvir Cmax. The exposures to GS-331007 and ledipasvir were not altered in the presence of either meal type. Harvoni can be administered without regard to food.
Distribution
Ledipasvir is > 99.8% bound to human plasma proteins. After a single 90 mg dose of [14C]-ledipasvir in healthy subjects, the blood to plasma ratio of [14C]-radioactivity ranged between 0.51 and 0.66.
Sofosbuvir is approximately 61-65% bound to human plasma proteins and the binding is independent of drug concentration over the range of 1 μg/mL to 20 μg/mL. Protein binding of GS-331007 was minimal in human plasma. After a single 400 mg dose of [14C]-sofosbuvir in healthy subjects, the blood to plasma ratio of [14C]-radioactivity was approximately 0.7.
Biotransformation
In vitro, no detectable metabolism of ledipasvir was observed by human CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Evidence of slow oxidative metabolism via an unknown mechanism has been observed. Following a single dose of 90 mg [14C]-ledipasvir, systemic exposure was almost exclusively due to the parent drug (> 98%). Unchanged ledipasvir is also the major species present in faeces.
Sofosbuvir is extensively metabolised in the liver to form the pharmacologically active nucleoside analogue triphosphate GS-461203. The active metabolite is not observed. The metabolic activation pathway involves sequential hydrolysis of the carboxyl ester moiety catalysed by human cathepsin A or carboxylesterase 1 and phosphoramidate cleavage by histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 followed by phosphorylation by the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. Dephosphorylation results in the formation of nucleoside metabolite GS-331007 that cannot be efficiently rephosphorylated and lacks anti-HCV activity in vitro. Within ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, GS-331007 accounts for approximately 85% of total systemic exposure.
Elimination
Following a single 90 mg oral dose of [14C]-ledipasvir, mean total recovery of the [14C]-radioactivity in faeces and urine was 87%, with most of the radioactive dose recovered from faeces (86%). Unchanged ledipasvir excreted in faeces accounted for a mean of 70% of the administered dose and the oxidative metabolite M19 accounted for 2.2% of the dose. These data suggest that biliary excretion of unchanged ledipasvir is a major route of elimination with renal excretion being a minor pathway (approximately 1%). The median terminal half-life of ledipasvir in healthy volunteers following administration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in the fasted state was 47 hours.
Following a single 400 mg oral dose of [14C]-sofosbuvir, mean total recovery of the dose was greater than 92%, consisting of approximately 80%, 14%, and 2.5% recovered in urine, faeces, and expired air, respectively. The majority of the sofosbuvir dose recovered in urine was GS-331007 (78%) while 3.5% was recovered as sofosbuvir. This data indicate that renal clearance is the major elimination pathway for GS-331007 with a large part actively secreted. The median terminal half-lives of sofosbuvir and GS-331007 following administration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir were 0.5 and 27 hours, respectively.
Neither ledipasvir nor sofosbuvir are substrates for hepatic uptake transporters, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 or OATP1B3. GS-331007 is not a substrate for renal transporters including organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 or OAT3, or OCT2.
In vitro potential for ledipasvir/sofosbuvir to affect other medicinal products
At concentrations achieved in the clinic, ledipasvir is not an inhibitor of hepatic transporters including the OATP 1B1 or 1B3, BSEP, OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, OAT3, multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) 1 transporter, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 or MRP4. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 are not inhibitors of drug transporters P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, BSEP, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 and GS-331007 is not an inhibitor of OAT1, OCT2 and MATE1.
Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 are not inhibitors or inducers of CYP or uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 enzymes.
Pharmacokinetics in special populations
Race and gender
No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic differences due to race have been identified for ledipasvir, sofosbuvir or GS-331007. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic differences due to gender have been identified for sofosbuvir or GS-331007. AUC and Cmax of ledipasvir were 77% and 58% higher, respectively, in females than males; however, the relationship between gender and ledipasvir exposures was not considered clinically relevant.
Elderly
Population pharmacokinetic analysis in HCV-infected patients showed that within the age range (18 to 80 years) analysed, age did not have a clinically relevant effect on the exposure to ledipasvir, sofosbuvir or GS-331007. Clinical studies of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir included 117 patients aged 65 years and over.
Renal impairment
The pharmacokinetics of ledipasvir were studied with a single dose of 90 mg ledipasvir in HCV negative patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min by Cockcroft-Gault, median [range] CrCl 22 [17-29] mL/min). No clinically relevant differences in ledipasvir pharmacokinetics were observed between healthy subjects and patients with severe renal impairment.
The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir were studied in HCV negative patients with mild (eGFR ≥ 50 and < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR ≥ 30 and < 50 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and patients with ESRD requiring haemodialysis following a single 400 mg dose of sofosbuvir. Relative to patients with normal renal function (eGFR > 80 mL/min/1.73 m2), the sofosbuvir AUC0-inf was 61%, 107% and 171% higher in mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, while the GS-331007 AUC0-inf was 55%, 88% and 451% higher, respectively. In patients with ESRD, relative to patients with normal renal function, sofosbuvir AUC0-inf was 28% higher when sofosbuvir was dosed 1 hour before haemodialysis compared with 60% higher when sofosbuvir was dosed 1 hour after haemodialysis. The AUC0-inf of GS-331007 in patients with ESRD administered with sofosbuvir 1 hour before or 1 hour after haemodialysis was at least 10-fold and 20-fold higher, respectively. GS-331007 is efficiently removed by haemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 53%. Following a single 400 mg dose of sofosbuvir, a 4 hour haemodialysis removed 18% of administered sofosbuvir dose. The safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD.
Hepatic impairment
The pharmacokinetics of ledipasvir were studied with a single dose of 90 mg ledipasvir in HCV negative patients with severe hepatic impairment (CPT class C). Ledipasvir plasma exposure (AUCinf) was similar in patients with severe hepatic impairment and control patients with normal hepatic function. Population pharmacokinetics analysis in HCV-infected patients indicated that cirrhosis had no clinically relevant effect on the exposure to ledipasvir.
The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir were studied following 7-day dosing of 400 mg sofosbuvir in HCV-infected patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (CPT class B and C). Relative to patients with normal hepatic function, the sofosbuvir AUC0-24 was 126% and 143% higher in moderate and severe hepatic impairment, while the GS-331007 AUC0-24 was 18% and 9% higher, respectively. Population pharmacokinetics analysis in HCV-infected patients indicated that cirrhosis had no clinically relevant effect on the exposure to sofosbuvir and GS-331007.
Body weight
Body weight did not have a significant effect on sofosbuvir exposure according to a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Exposure to ledipasvir decreases with increasing body weight but the effect is not considered to be clinically relevant.
Paediatric population
The pharmacokinetics of ledipasvir, sofosbuvir and GS-331007 in paediatric patients have not been established (see section 4.2).
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Ledipasvir
No target organs of toxicity were identified in rat and dog studies with ledipasvir at AUC exposures approximately 7 times the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose.
Ledipasvir was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo rat micronucleus assays.
Ledipasvir carcinogenicity studies are ongoing.
Ledipasvir had no adverse effects on mating and fertility. In female rats, the mean number of corpora lutea and implantation sites were slightly reduced at maternal exposures 6-fold the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose. At the no observed effect level, AUC exposure to ledipasvir was approximately 7- and 3-fold, in males and females, respectively, the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose.
No teratogenic effects were observed in rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies with ledipasvir.
In a rat pre- and postnatal study, at a maternally toxic dose, the developing rat offspring exhibited mean decreased body weight and body weight gain when exposed in utero (via maternal dosing) and during lactation (via maternal milk) at a maternal exposure 4 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose. There were no effects on survival, physical and behavioural development and reproductive performance in the offspring at maternal exposures similar to the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
When administered to lactating rats, ledipasvir was detected in plasma of suckling rats likely due to excretion of ledipasvir via milk.
Sofosbuvir
In repeat dose toxicology studies in rat and dog, high doses of the 1:1 diastereomeric mixture caused adverse liver (dog) and heart (rat) effects and gastrointestinal reactions (dog). Exposure to sofosbuvir in rodent studies could not be detected likely due to high esterase activity; however, exposure to the major metabolite GS-331007 at doses which cause adverse effects was 16 times (rat) and 71 times (dog) higher than the clinical exposure at 400 mg sofosbuvir. No liver or heart findings were observed in chronic toxicity studies at exposures 5 times (rat) and 16 times (dog) higher than the clinical exposure. No liver or heart findings were observed in the 2-year carcinogenicity studies at exposures 17 times (mouse) and 9 times (rat) higher than the clinical exposure.
Sofosbuvir was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo mouse micronucleus assays.
Carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats do not indicate any carcinogenicity potential of sofosbuvir administered at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day in mouse and 750 mg/kg/day in rat. Exposure to GS-331007 in these studies was up to 17 times (mouse) and 9 times (rat) higher than the clinical exposure at 400 mg sofosbuvir.
Sofosbuvir had no effects on embryo-foetal viability or on fertility in rat and was not teratogenic in rat and rabbit development studies. No adverse effects on behaviour, reproduction or development of offspring in rat were reported. In rabbit studies exposure to sofosbuvir was 6 times the expected clinical exposure. In the rat studies, exposure to sofosbuvir could not be determined but exposure margins based on the major human metabolite was approximately 5 times higher than the clinical exposure at 400 mg sofosbuvir.
Sofosbuvir-derived material was transferred through the placenta in pregnant rats and into the milk of lactating rats.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Tablet core
Copovidone
Lactose monohydrate
Microcrystalline cellulose
Croscarmellose sodium
Colloidal anhydrous silica
Magnesium stearate
Film-coating
Polyvinyl alcohol
Titanium dioxide
Macrogol 3350
Talc
Sunset yellow FCF aluminium lake (E110)
6.2 Incompatibilities
Not applicable.
6.3 Shelf life
2 years.
6.4 Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Harvoni tablets are supplied in high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles with a polypropylene child-resistant closure containing 28 film-coated tablets with a silica gel desiccant and polyester coil.
The following pack sizes are available: outer cartons containing 1 bottle of 28 film-coated tablets and outer cartons containing 84 (3 bottles of 28) film-coated tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
Gilead Sciences International Ltd.
Cambridge
CB21 6GT
United Kingdom
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
EU/1/14/958/001
EU/1/14/958/002
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 17 November 2014
10. Date of revision of the text
11/2014
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu
欧洲上市包装


美国上市包装


新丙肝复方药物Harvoni 90mg/400 mg film-coated tablets获欧盟上市
Harvoni是NS5A抑制剂ledipasvir(LDV)和核苷酸类似物聚合酶抑制剂sofosbuvir(SOF)的组合药物,可以用于治疗成人的慢性丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)。
Harvoni是吉列德科学研发的二联复方药物,主要由400毫克索菲布韦片和90毫克的ledipasvir组成,这是第一个可以治疗大多数慢性丙型肝炎基因1型和4型成年人的片剂,每天服用一次。
上市许可主要基于三个3期临床试验,ION-1,ION-2和ION-3,在这些实验评估了Harvoni与利巴韦林联用或单独使用Harvoni治疗近2000个基因型1丙型肝炎病毒感染的并有失代偿性肝病的患者,疗程为8周,12周或24周。
Harvoni是NS5A抑制剂ledipasvir(LDV)和核苷酸类似物聚合酶抑制剂sofosbuvir(SOF)的组合药物,可以用于治疗成人的慢性丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)。
2014年1月,Harvoni被欧洲委员会批准以商品名Sovaldi销售。
建议未曾治疗过或有过治疗的肝硬化和非肝硬化性基因1型和4型患者使用Harvoni。根据既往治疗史及肝硬化的状态确定疗程为12或24周。
该公司表示,对于没有被治疗过的非肝硬化基因1型患者,建议Harvoni的疗程为8周。
对于有失代偿性肝硬化的基因型1和4型患者,有肝硬化和/或先前治疗失败的基因3型患者,Harvoni应结合利巴韦林使用并治疗24周。
伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院的肝病教授Foster表示:“在欧洲,基因1型丙肝患者,以及治疗他们的医生已经期待这样的一款药物几十年了。
“随着Harvoni的出现,我们要改变我们对欧洲的常见类型丙肝患者的治疗方式。现在,我们可以期望非常高的体循环血管阻力(SVR),而对于许多患者而言,我们可以不再需要干扰素注射剂和利巴韦林,并且每天只需服用一次片剂。”
欧盟的批准基于SOLAR-1试验的数据,试验中涉及的患者有难以治疗的失代偿性肝硬化或是接受过肝移植,另一个是ERADICATE试验,评估了患有基因1型丙型肝炎,并且初步数据证明感染HIV的患者.

责任编辑:admin


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