英文药名：AUBAGIO(Teriflunomide 14mg filmcoated tablets)
AUBAGIO 14mg filmcoated tablets
1. Name of the medicinal product
AUBAGIO 14 mg film-coated tablets
2. Qualitative and quantitative composition
Each film-coated tablet contains 14 mg of teriflunomide.
Excipient with known effect: Each tablet contains 72 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. Pharmaceutical form
Film-coated tablet (tablet).
Pale blue to pastel blue, pentagonal film-coated tablets with imprint on one side ('14') and engraved with a corporate logo on the other side.
4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
AUBAGIO is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).
(please refer to section 5.1 for important information on the population for which efficacy has been established).
4.2 Posology and method of administration
The treatment should be initiated and supervised by a physician experienced in the management of multiple sclerosis.
The recommended dose of AUBAGIO is 14 mg once daily.
AUBAGIO should be used with caution in patients aged 65 years and over due to insufficient data on safety and efficacy.
No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment not undergoing dialysis.
Patients with severe renal impairment undergoing dialysis were not evaluated. Teriflunomide is contraindicated in this population (see section 4.3).
No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. Teriflunomide is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 4.3).
The safety and efficacy of AUBAGIO in children aged from 10 to less than 18 years has not yet been established. There is no relevant use of teriflunomide in children aged from birth to less than 10 years for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
No data are available.
Method of administration
The film-coated tablets are for oral use. The tablets should be swallowed whole with some water. AUBAGIO can be taken with or without food.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).
Pregnant women, or women of childbearing potential who are not using reliable contraception during treatment with teriflunomide and thereafter as long as its plasma levels are above 0.02 mg/l (see section 4.6). Pregnancy must be excluded before start of treatment (see section 4.6).
Breast-feeding women (see section 4.6).
Patients with severe immunodeficiency states, e.g. AIDS.
Patients with significantly impaired bone marrow function or significant anaemia, leucopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia.
Patients with severe active infection until resolution (see section 4.4).
Patients with severe renal impairment undergoing dialysis, because insufficient clinical experience is available in this patient group.
Patients with severe hypoproteinaemia, e.g. in nephrotic syndrome.
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Before starting treatment with teriflunomide the following should be assessed:
• Blood pressure
• Alanine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT)
• Complete blood cell count including differential white blood cell and platelet count.
During treatment with teriflunomide the following should be monitored:
• Blood pressure
• Alanine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT)
• Complete blood cell counts should be performed based on signs and symptoms (e.g. infections) during treatment.
Accelerated elimination procedure
Teriflunomide is eliminated slowly from the plasma. Without an accelerated elimination procedure, it takes an average of 8 months to reach plasma concentrations less than 0.02 mg/l, although due to individual variation in substance clearance it may take up to 2 years. An accelerated elimination procedure can be used at any time after discontinuation of teriflunomide (see section 4.6 and 5.2 for procedural details).
Elevations of liver enzymes have been observed in patients receiving teriflunomide (see section 4.8). These elevations occurred mostly within the first 6 months of treatment.
Liver enzymes should be assessed before initiation of teriflunomide therapy - every two weeks during the first 6 months of treatment, and every 8 weeks thereafter or as indicated by clinical signs and symptoms such as unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or jaundice and/or dark urine. For ALT (SGPT) elevations between 2- and 3-fold the upper limit of normal, monitoring must be performed weekly. Teriflunomide therapy should be discontinued if liver injury is suspected; consider discontinuing teriflunomide therapy if elevated liver enzymes (greater than 3-fold ULN) are confirmed. Patients with pre-existing liver disease may be at increased risk of developing elevated liver enzymes when taking teriflunomide and should be closely monitored for signals of liver disease.
The medicinal product should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol.
Since teriflunomide is highly protein bound and as the binding is dependent upon the concentrations of albumin, unbound plasma teriflunomide concentrations are expected to be increased in patients with hypoproteinaemia, e.g. in nephrotic syndrome. Teriflunomide should not be used in patients with conditions of severe hypoproteinaemia.
Elevation of blood pressure may occur during treatment with teriflunomide (see section 4.8). Blood pressure must be checked before the start of teriflunomide treatment and periodically thereafter. Blood pressure elevation should be appropriately managed before and during treatment with teriflunomide.
Initiation of treatment with teriflunomide should be delayed in patients with severe active infection until resolution.
In placebo-controlled studies, no increase in serious infections was observed with teriflunomide (see section 4.8). However, based on the immunomodulatory effect of AUBAGIO, if a patient develops a serious infection, suspending treatment with AUBAGIO should be considered and the benefits and risks should be reassessed prior to re-initiation of therapy. Due to the prolonged half-life, accelerated elimination with cholestyramine or charcoal may be considered.
Patients receiving AUBAGIO should be instructed to report symptoms of infections to a physician. Patients with active acute or chronic infections should not start treatment with AUBAGIO until the infection(s) is resolved.
The safety of AUBAGIO in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection is unknown, as tuberculosis screening was not systematically performed in clinical studies. For patients testing positive in tuberculosis screening, treat by standard medical practice prior to therapy with AUBAGIO.
No cases of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) have been reported with teriflunomide in the clinical trials. However, ILD, which is a potentially fatal disorder, has been reported during treatment with leflunomide, the parent compound. ILD may occur acutely during therapy; the risk is increased in patients who had a history of ILD when treated with leflunomide.
Pulmonary symptoms, such as persistent cough and dyspnoea, may be a reason for discontinuation of the therapy and for further investigation, as appropriate.
A mean decrease less than 15% from baseline affecting white blood cell count has been observed (see section 4.8). As a precaution, a recent complete blood cell count, including differential white blood cell count and platelets, should be available before the initiation of treatment with AUBAGIO and the complete blood cell count should be assessed during AUBAGIO therapy as indicated by clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., infections).
In patients with pre-existing anaemia, leucopenia, and /or thrombocytopenia as well as in patients with impaired bone marrow function or those at risk of bone marrow suppression, the risk of haematological disorders is increased. If such effects occur, the accelerated elimination procedure (see above) to reduce plasma levels of teriflunomide should be considered.
In cases of severe haematological reactions, including pancytopenia, AUBAGIO and any concomitant myelosuppressive treatment must be discontinued and a teriflunomide accelerated elimination procedure should be considered.
No cases of severe skins reactions have been reported with teriflunomide in the clinical trials. In patients treated with leflunomide, the parent compound, very rare cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported.
In case of ulcerative stomatitis, teriflunomide administration should be discontinued. If skin and /or mucosal reactions are observed which raise the suspicion of severe generalised major skin reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis-Lyell's syndrome), teriflunomide and any other possibly associated treatment must be discontinued, and an accelerated procedure initiated immediately. In such cases patients should not be re-exposed to teriflunomide (see section 4.3).
Cases of peripheral neuropathy have been reported in patients receiving AUBAGIO (see section 4.8). Most patients improved after discontinuation of AUBAGIO. However, there was a wide variability in final outcome, i.e. in some patients the neuropathy resolved and some patients had persistent symptoms. If a patient taking AUBAGIO develops a confirmed peripheral neuropathy, consider discontinuing AUBAGIO therapy and performing the accelerated elimination procedure.
In a clinical study, teriflunomide-treated patients mounted appropriate immune responses to a seasonal influenza vaccination, consistent with the preservation of a response to booster vaccine. Patients reached post-vaccination antibody titres, consistent with seroprotection. No clinical data are available on the efficacy and safety of vaccinations regarding primary immune response to neopathogens. The use of live attenuated vaccines may carry a risk of infections and should, therefore, be avoided.
Immunosuppressive or immunomodulating therapies
As leflunomide is the parent compound of teriflunomide, co-administration of teriflunomide with leflunomide is not recommended.
Co-administration with antineoplastic or immunosuppressive therapies used for treatment of MS has not been evaluated. Safety studies, in which teriflunomide was concomitantly administered with interferon beta or with glatiramer acetate for up to one year did not reveal any specific safety concerns, but a higher adverse reaction rate as compared to teriflunomide monotherapy was observed. The long term safety of these combinations in the treatment of multiple sclerosis has not been established.
Switching to or from AUBAGIO
Based on the clinical data related to concomitant administration of teriflunomide with interferon beta or with glatiramer acetate, no waiting period is required when initiating teriflunomide after interferon beta or glatiramer acetate or when starting interferon beta or glatiramer acetate, after teriflunomide.
Due to the long half-life of natalizumab, concomitant exposure, and thus concomitant immune effects, could occur for up to 2-3 months following discontinuation of natalizumab if AUBAGIO was immediately started. Therefore, caution is required when switching patients from natalizumab to AUBAGIO.
Based on the half-life of fingolimod, a 6-week interval without therapy is needed for clearance from the circulation and a 1 to 2 month period is needed for lymphocytes to return to normal range following discontinuation of fingolimod. Starting AUBAGIO during this interval will result in concomitant exposure to fingolimod. This may lead to an additive effect on the immune system and caution is, therefore, indicated.
In MS patients, the median t1/2z was approximately 19 days after repeated doses of 14 mg. If a decision is made to stop treatment with AUBAGIO, during the interval of 5 half-lives (approximately 3.5 months although may be longer in some patients), starting other therapies will result in concomitant exposure to AUBAGIO. This may lead to an additive effect on the immune system and caution is, therefore, indicated.
Since AUBAGIO tablets contain lactose, patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption, should not take this medicinal product.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Pharmacokinetic interactions of other substances on teriflunomide
The primary biotransformation pathway for teriflunomide is hydrolysis, with oxidation being a minor pathway.
Potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) and transporter inducers: Co-administration of repeated doses (600 mg once daily for 22 days) of rifampicin (a CYP2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 3A inducer), as well as an inducer of the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein [P-gp] and breast cancer resistant protein [BCRP] with teriflunomide (70 mg single dose) resulted in an approximately 40% decrease in teriflunomide exposure. Rifampicin and other known potent CYP and transporter inducers such as carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and St John's Wort should be used with caution during the treatment with teriflunomide.
Cholestyramine or activated charcoal
It is recommended that patients receiving teriflunomide are not treated with cholestyramine or activated charcoal because this leads to a rapid and significant decrease in plasma concentration unless an accelerated elimination is desired. The mechanism is thought to be by interruption of enterohepatic recycling and/or gastrointestinal dialysis of teriflunomide.
Pharmacokinetic interactions of teriflunomide on other substances
Effect of teriflunomide on CYP2C8 substrate: repaglinide
There was an increase in mean repaglinide Cmax and AUC (1.7- and 2.4-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide, suggesting that teriflunomide is an inhibitor of CYP2C8 in vivo. Therefore, medicinal products metabolised by CYP2C8, such as repaglinide, paclitaxel, pioglitazone or rosiglitazone, should be used with caution during treatment with teriflunomide.
Effect of teriflunomide on oral contraceptive: 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel
There was an increase in mean ethinylestradiol Cmax and AUC0-24 (1.58- and 1.54-fold, respectively) and levonorgestrel Cmax and AUC0-24 (1.33- and 1.41-fold, respectively) following repeated doses of teriflunomide. While this interaction of teriflunomide is not expected to adversely impact the efficacy of oral contraceptives, consideration should be given to the type or dose of oral contraceptives used in combination with teriflunomide.
Effect of teriflunomide on CYP1A2 substrate: caffeine
Repeated doses of teriflunomide decreased mean Cmax and AUC of caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate) by 18% and 55%, respectively, suggesting that teriflunomide may be a weak inducer of CYP1A2 in vivo. Therefore, medicinal products metabolised by CYP1A2 (such as duloxetin, alosetron, theophylline and tizanidine) should be used with caution during treatment with teriflunomide, as it could lead to the reduction of the efficacy of these products.
Effect of teriflunomide on warfarin
Repeated doses of teriflunomide had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin, indicating that teriflunomide is not an inhibitor or an inducer of CYP2C9. However, a 25% decrease in peak international normalised ratio (INR) was observed when teriflunomide was coadministered with warfarin as compared with warfarin alone. Therefore, when warfarin is co-administered with teriflunomide, close INR follow-up and monitoring is recommended.
Effect of teriflunomide on organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) substrates:
There was an increase in mean cefaclor Cmax and AUC (1.43- and 1.54-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide, suggesting that teriflunomide is an inhibitor of OAT3 in vivo. Therefore, when teriflunomide is coadministered with substrates of OAT3, such as cefaclor, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, indometacin, ketoprofen, furosemide, cimetidine, methotrexate, zidovudine, caution is recommended.
Effect of teriflunomide on BCRP and /or organic anion transporting polypeptide B1 and B3 (OATP1B1/B3) substrates:
There was an increase in mean rosuvastatin Cmax and AUC (2.65- and 2.51-fold, respectively), following repeated doses of teriflunomide. However, there was no apparent impact of this increase in plasma rosuvastatin exposure on the HMG-CoA reductase activity. For rosuvastatin, a dose reduction by 50% is recommended for coadministration with teriflunomide. For other substrates of BCRP (e.g., methotrexate, topotecan, sulfasalazine, daunorubicin, doxorubicin) and the OATP family especially HMG-Co reductase inhibitors (e.g., simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, methotrexate, nateglinide, repaglinide, rifampicin) concomitant administration of teriflunomide should also be undertaken with caution. Patients should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of excessive exposure to the medicinal products and reduction of the dose of these medicinal products should be considered.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Use in males
The risk of male-mediated embryo-foetal toxicity through teriflunomide treatment is considered low (see section 5.3).
There are limited amount of data from the use of teriflunomide in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3).
Teriflunomide may cause serious birth defects when administered during pregnancy. Teriflunomide is contraindicated in pregnancy (see section 4.3).
Women of childbearing potential have to use effective contraception during treatment and after treatment as long as teriflunomide plasma concentration is above 0.02 mg/l. During this period women should discuss any plans to stop or change contraception with the treating physician.
The patient must be advised that if there is any delay in onset of menses or any other reason to suspect pregnancy, they must notify the physician immediately for pregnancy testing, and if positive, the physician and patient must discuss the risk to the pregnancy. It is possible that rapidly lowering the blood level of teriflunomide, by instituting the accelerated elimination procedure described below, at the first delay of menses, may decrease the risk to the foetus.
For women receiving teriflunomide treatment, who wish to become pregnant, the medicine should be stopped and an accelerated elimination procedure is recommended in order to more rapidly achieve concentration below 0.02 mg/l (see below):
If an accelerated elimination procedure is not used, teriflunomide plasma levels can be expected to be above 0.02 mg/l for an average of 8 months, however, in some patients it may take up to 2 years to reach plasma concentration below 0.02 mg/l. Therefore, teriflunomide plasma concentrations should be measured before a woman begins to attempt to become pregnant. Once the teriflunomide plasma concentration is determined to be below 0.02 mg/l, the plasma concentration must be determined again after an interval of at least 14 days. If both plasma concentrations are below 0.02 mg/l, no risk to the foetus is to be expected.
For further information on the sample testing please contact the Marketing Authorisation Holder or its local representative (see section 7).
Accelerated elimination procedure
After stopping treatment with teriflunomide:
• cholestyramine 8 g is administered 3 times daily for a period of 11 days, or cholestyramine 4 g three times a day can be used, if cholestyramine 8 g three times a day is not well tolerated,
• alternatively, 50 g of activated powdered charcoal is administered every 12 hours for a period of 11 days.
However, also following either of the accelerated elimination procedures, verification by 2 separate tests at an interval of at least 14 days and a waiting period of one-and-a-half months between the first occurrence of a plasma concentration below 0.02 mg/l and fertilisation is required.
Both cholestyramine and activated powdered charcoal may influence the absorption of oestrogens and progestogens such that reliable contraception with oral contraceptives may not be guaranteed during the accelerated elimination procedure with cholestyramine or activated powdered charcoal. Use of alternative contraceptive methods is recommended.
Animal studies have shown excretion of teriflunomide in breast milk. Breast-feeding women must, therefore, not receive teriflunomide.
Results of studies in animals have not shown an effect on fertility (see section 5.3). Although human data are lacking, no effect on male and female fertility is anticipated.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
AUBAGIO has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
In the case of adverse reactions such as dizziness, which has been reported with leflunomide, the parent compound, the patient's ability to concentrate and to react properly may be impaired. In such cases, patients should refrain from driving cars and using machines.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
A total of 1,064 patients were exposed to teriflunomide (539 on teriflunomide 7 mg and 525 on teriflunomide 14 mg) once daily for a median duration of about 2 years in two placebo-controlled studies (429 and 415 patients for teriflunomide 7 mg and 14 mg, respectively) and one active comparator study (110 patients in each of the teriflunomide treatment groups) in patients with relapsing forms of MS (Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis, RMS).
Teriflunomide is the main metabolite of leflunomide. The safety profile of leflunomide in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis may be pertinent when prescribing teriflunomide in MS patients.
The placebo-controlled pooled analysis was based on 844 patients with Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis treated with teriflunomide once daily. Within this safety population, the most commonly reported adverse reactions in the teriflunomide treated patients were: influenza, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, paraesthesia, diarrhoea, increased ALT, nausea, and alopecia. In general, diarrhoea, nausea and alopecia, were mild to moderate, transient and infrequently led to treatment discontinuation.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
Adverse reactions reported with AUBAGIO in placebo-controlled studies are shown below. Frequencies were defined using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000); not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are ranked in order of decreasing seriousness.
*: Based on leflunomide data only
Description of selected adverse reactions
Alopecia was reported as hair thinning, decreased hair density, hair loss, associated or not with hair texture change, in 15.2% of patients treated with 14 mg teriflunomide versus 4.3% in patients treated with placebo. Most cases were described as diffuse or generalised over the scalp (no complete hair loss reported) and occurred most often during the first 6 months and with resolution in 57 of 63 (90%) patients treated with teriflunomide 14 mg. Discontinuation because of alopecia was 1.4% in the teriflunomide 14 mg teriflunomide group, versus 0% in the placebo group.
During placebo-controlled studies the following was detected:
Mild increases in transaminase, ALT below or equal to 3-fold ULN, were more frequently seen in teriflunomide-treated groups as compared to placebo. The frequency of elevations above 3-fold ULN and higher was balanced across treatment groups. These elevations in transaminase occurred mostly within the first 6 months of treatment and were reversible after treatment cessation. The recovery time varied between months and years.
Blood pressure effects
In placebo-controlled studies the following was established:
- systolic blood pressure was >140 mm Hg in 18.6% of patients receiving 14 mg/day teriflunomide as compared to 17.8% receiving placebo;
- systolic blood pressure was >160 mm Hg in 4.1% of patients receiving 14 mg/day teriflunomide as compared to 2.6% receiving placebo;
- diasystolic blood pressure was >90 mm Hg in 20.3% of patients receiving 14 mg/day teriflunomide as compared to 17.1% receiving placebo.
In placebo-controlled studies, no increase in serious infections was observed with teriflunomide 14 mg (2.2%) as compared to placebo (2.1%). Serious opportunistic infections occurred in 0.2% of each group.
A mean decrease affecting white blood cell (WBC) count (<15% from baseline levels, mainly neutrophil and lymphocytes decrease) was observed in placebo-controlled trials with AUBAGIO, although a greater decrease was observed in some patients. The decrease in mean count from baseline occurred during the first 6 weeks then stabilised over time while on-treatment but at decreased levels (less than a 15% decrease from baseline). The effect on red blood cell (RBC) (<2%) and platelet counts (<10%) was less pronounced.
In placebo-controlled studies, peripheral neuropathy, including both polyneuropathy and mononeuropathy (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome), was reported more frequently in patients taking teriflunomide than in patients taking placebo. In the pivotal, placebo-controlled studies, the incidence of peripheral neuropathy confirmed by nerve conduction studies was 2.2% (15 patients out of 685) on 14 mg of teriflunomide, compared with 0.6% (4 patients out of 708) on placebo. Treatment was discontinued in 7 patients with peripheral neuropathy and 4 on teriflunomide 14 mg. Recovery following treatment discontinuation was reported in the 2 of these patients.
Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl. cysts and polyps)
There does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy with teriflunomide in the clinical trial experience. The risk of malignancy, particularly lymphoproliferative disorders, is increased with use of some other agents that affect the immune system (class effect).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed below :
Yellow Card Scheme
The Medicines Authority
203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens
Irish Medicines Board Kevin O'Malley House Earlsfort Centre Earlsfort Terrace
IRL - Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971
Fax: +353 1 6767836
There is no experience regarding teriflunomide overdose or intoxication in humans. Teriflunomide 70 mg daily was administered up to 14 days in healthy subjects. The adverse reactions were consistent with the safety profile for teriflunomide in MS patients.
In the event of relevant overdose or toxicity, cholestyramine or activated charcoal is recommended to accelerate elimination. The recommended elimination procedure is cholestyramine 8 g three times a day for 11 days. If this is not well tolerated, cholestyramine 4 g three times a day for 11 days can be used. Alternatively, when cholestyramine is not available, activated charcoal 50 g twice a day for 11 days may also be used. In addition, if required for tolerability reasons, administration of cholestyramine or activated charcoal does not need to occur on consecutive days (see section 5.2).
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Selective immunosuppressants, ATC Code: L04AA31.
Mechanism of action
Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties that selectively and reversibly inhibits the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHO-DH), required for the de novo pyrimidine synthesis. As a consequence teriflunomide reduces the proliferation of dividing cells that need de novo synthesis of pyrimidine to expand. The exact mechanism by which teriflunomide exerts its therapeutic effect in MS is not fully understood, but this is mediated by a reduced number of lymphocytes.
Effects on immune cell numbers in the blood: In the placebo-controlled studies, teriflunomide 14 mg once a day led to a mild mean reduction in lymphocyte count, of less than 0.3 x 109/l, which occurred over the first 3 months of treatment and levels were maintained until the end of the treatment.
Potential to prolong the QT interval
In a placebo-controlled thorough QT study performed in healthy subjects, teriflunomide at mean steady-state concentrations did not show any potential for prolonging the QTcF interval compared with placebo: the largest time matched mean difference between teriflunomide and placebo was 3.45 ms with the upper bound of the 90% CI being 6.45 ms.
Effect on renal tubular functions
In the placebo-controlled studies, mean decreases in serum uric acid at a range of 20 to 30% were observed in patients treated with teriflunomide compared to placebo. Mean decrease in serum phosphorus was around 10% in the teriflunomide group compared to placebo. These effects are considered to be related to increase in renal tubular excretion and not related to changes in glomerular functions.
Clinical efficacy and safety
The efficacy of AUBAGIO was demonstrated in two placebo controlled studies, the TEMSO and the TOWER study, that evaluated once daily doses of teriflunomide 7 mg and 14 mg in patients with RMS.
A total of 1088 patients with RMS were randomised in TEMSO to receive 7 mg (n=366) or 14 mg (n=359) of teriflunomide or placebo (n= 363) for 108 weeks duration. All patients had a definite diagnosis of MS (based on McDonald criteria (2001)), exhibited a relapsing clinical course, with or without progression, and experienced at least 1 relapse over the year preceding the trial or at least 2 relapses over the 2 years preceding the trial. At entry, patients had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤5.5.
The mean age of the study population was 37.9 years. The majority of patients had relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (91.5%), but a subgroup of patients had secondary progressive (4.7%) or progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (3.9%). The mean number of relapses within the year before study inclusion was 1.4 with 36.2% of patients having gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline. The median EDSS score at baseline was 2.50249 patients (22.9%) had an EDSS score › 3.5 at baseline. The mean duration of disease, since first symptoms, was 8.7 years. A majority of patients (73%) had not received disease-modifying therapy during the 2 years before study entry. The study results are shown in Table 1.
A total of 1169 patients with RMS were randomised in TOWER to receive 7 mg (n=408) or 14 mg (n=372) of teriflunomide or placebo (n= 389) for a variable treatment duration ending at 48 weeks after last patient randomised. All patients had a definite diagnosis of MS (based on McDonald criteria (2005)), exhibited a relapsing clinical course, with or without progression, and experienced at least 1 relapse over the year preceding the trial or at least 2 relapses over the 2 years preceding the trial. At entry, patients had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤5.5.
The mean age of the study population was 37.9 years. The majority of patients had relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (97.5%), but a subgroup of patients had secondary progressive (0.8%) or progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis (1.7%). The mean number of relapses within the year before study inclusion was 1.4. Gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline: no data. The median EDSS score at baseline was 2.50; 298 patients (25.5%) had an EDSS score › 3.5 at baseline. The mean duration of disease, since first symptoms, was 8.0 years. A majority of patients (67.2%) had not received disease-modifying therapy during the 2 years before study entry. The study results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 - Main Results ( for the approved dose, ITT population)
**** p<0.0001 *** p<0.001 ** p<0.01 * p<0.05 compared to placebo
(1) BOD: burden of disease: total lesion volume (T2 and T1 hypointense) in ml
Efficacy in patients with high disease activity:
A consistent treatment effect on relapses and time to 3-month sustained disability progression in a subgroup of patients in TEMSO (n= 127) with high disease activity was observed. Due to the design of the study, high disease activity was defined as 2 or more relapses in one year, and with one or more Gd-enhancing lesion on brain MRI. No similar subgroup analysis was performed in TOWER as no MRI data were obtained.
No data are available in patients who have failed to respond to a full and adequate course (normally at least one year of treatment) of beta-interferon, having had at least 1 relapse in the previous year while on therapy, and at least 9 T2-hyperintense lesions in cranial MRI or at least 1 Gd-enhancing lesion, or patients having an unchanged or increased relapse rate in the prior year as compared to the previous 2 years.
Teriflunomide effectiveness was compared to that of a subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (at the recommended dose of 44 µg three times a week) in 324 randomised patients in a study (TENERE) with minimum treatment duration of 48 weeks (maximum 114 weeks). The risk of failure (confirmed relapse or permanent treatment discontinuation whichever came first) was the primary endpoint. The number of patients with permanent treatment discontinuation in the teriflunomide 14 mg group was 22 out of 111 (19.8%), the reasons being adverse events (10.8%), lack of efficacy (3.6%), other reason (4.5%) and lost to follow-up (0.9%). The number of patients with permanent treatment discontinuation in the subcutaneous interferon beta-1a group was 30 out of 104 (28 .8%), the reasons being adverse events (21.2%), lack of efficacy (1.9%), other reason (4.8%) and poor compliance to protocol (1%). Teriflunomide 14 mg/day was not superior to interferon beta-1a on the primary endpoint: the estimated percentage of patients with treatment failure at 96 weeks using the Kaplan-Meier method was 41.1% versus 44.4% (teriflunomide 14 mg versus interferon beta-1a group, p=0.595) .
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with AUBAGIO in children from birth to less than 10 years in treatment of multiple sclerosis (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with AUBAGIO in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in multiple sclerosis (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
Median time to reach maximum plasma concentrations occurs between 1 to 4 hours post-dose following repeated oral administration of teriflunomide, with high bioavailability (approximately 100%).
Food does not have a clinically relevant effect on teriflunomide pharmacokinetics.
From the mean predicted pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from the population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analysis using data from healthy volunteers and MS patients, there is a slow approach to steady-state concentration (i.e., approximately 100 days (3.5 months) to attain 95% of steady-state concentrations) and the estimated AUC accumulation ratio is approximately 34-fold.
Teriflunomide is extensively bound to plasma protein (>99%), probably albumin and is mainly distributed in plasma. The volume of distribution is 11 l after a single intravenous (IV) administration. However, this is most likely an underestimation since extensive organ distribution was observed in rats.
Teriflunomide is moderately metabolised and is the only component detected in plasma. The primary biotransformation pathway for teriflunomide is hydrolysis with oxidation being a minor pathway. Secondary pathways involve oxidation, N-acetylation and sulfate conjugation.
Teriflunomide is excreted in the gastrointestinal tract mainly through the bile as unchanged medicinal product and most likely by direct secretion. Teriflunomide is a substrate of the efflux transporter BCRP, which could be involved in direct secretion. Over 21 days, 60.1% of the administered dose is excreted via feces (37.5%) and urine (22.6%). After the rapid elimination procedure with cholestyramine, an additional 23.1% was recovered (mostly in feces). Based on individual prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters using the PopPK model of teriflunomide in healthy volunteers and MS patients, median t1/2z was approximately 19 days after repeated doses of 14 mg. After a single IV administration, the total body clearance of teriflunomide is 30.5 ml/h.
Accelerated Elimination Procedure: Cholestyramine and activated charcoal
The elimination of teriflunomide from the circulation can be accelerated by administration of cholestyramine or activated charcoal, presumably by interrupting the reabsorption processes at the intestinal level. Teriflunomide concentrations measured during an 11-day procedure to accelerate teriflunomide elimination with either 8 g cholestyramine three times a day, 4 g cholestyramine three times a day or 50 g activated charcoal twice a day following cessation of teriflunomide treatment have shown that these regimens were effective in accelerating teriflunomide elimination, leading to more than 98% decrease in teriflunomide plasma concentrations, with cholestyramine being faster than charcoal. Following discontinuation of teriflunomide and the administration of cholestyramine 8 g three times a day, the plasma concentration of teriflunomide is reduced 52% at the end of day 1, 91% at the end of day 3, 99.2% at the end of day 7, and 99.9% at the completion of day 11. The choice between the 3 elimination procedures should depend on the patient's tolerability. If cholestyramine 8 g three times a day is not well-tolerated, cholestyramine 4 g three times a day can be used. Alternatively, activated charcoal may also be used (the 11 days do not need to be consecutive unless there is a need to lower teriflunomide plasma concentration rapidly).
Systemic exposure increases in a dose proportional manner after oral administration teriflunomide from 7 to 14mg.
Characteristics in specific groups of patients
Gender, Elderly, Paediatric patients
Several sources of intrinsic variability were identified in healthy subjects and MS patients based on the PopPK analysis: age, body weight, gender, race, and albumin and bilirubin levels. Nevertheless, their impact remains limited (≤31%).
Mild and moderate hepatic impairment had no impact on the pharmacokinetic of teriflunomide. Therefore no dose adjustment is anticipated in mild and moderate hepatic-impaired patients. However, teriflunomide is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2 and 4.3).
Severe renal impairment had no impact on the pharmacokinetic of teriflunomide. Therefore no dose adjustment is anticipated in mild, moderate and severe renal-impaired patients.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Repeated oral administration of teriflunomide to mice, rats and dogs for up to 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, revealed that the major targets of toxicity were the bone marrow, lymphoid organs, oral cavity/ gastro intestinal tract, reproductive organs, and pancreas. Evidence of an oxidative effect on red blood cells was also observed. Anemia, decreased platelet counts and effects on the immune system, including leukopenia, lymphopenia and secondary infections, were related to the effects on the bone marrow and/or lymphoid organs. The majority of effects reflect the basic mode of action of the compound (inhibition of dividing cells). Animals are more sensitive to the pharmacology, and therefore toxicity, of teriflunomide than humans. As a result, toxicity in animals was found at exposures equivalent or below human therapeutic levels.
Teriflunomide was not mutagenic in vitro or clastogenic in vivo. Clastogenicity observed in vitro was considered to be an indirect effect related to nucleotide pool imbalance resulting from the pharmacology of DHO-DH inhibition. The minor metabolite TFMA (4-trifluoromethylaniline) caused mutagenicity and clastogenicity in vitro but not in vivo.
No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in rats and mice.
Fertility was unaffected in rats despite adverse effects of teriflunomide on male reproductive organs, including reduced sperm count. There were no external malformations in the offspring of male rats administered teriflunomide prior to mating with untreated female rats. Teriflunomide was embryotoxic and teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses in the human therapeutic range. Adverse effects on the offspring were also seen when teriflunomide was administered to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation. The risk of male-mediated embryo-fetal toxicity through teriflunomide treatment is considered low. The estimated female plasma exposure via the semen of a treated patient is expected to be 100 times lower than the plasma exposure after 14 mg of oral teriflunomide.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
sodium starch glycolate (Type A)
titanium dioxide (E171)
indigo carmine aluminum lake (E132)
6.3 Shelf life
6.4 Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Aluminium-aluminium blisters inserted in wallets (14 and 28 film-coated tablets) and packed in cartons containing 14, 28, 84 (3 wallets of 28), and 98 (7 wallets of 14) film-coated tablets.
Each wallet is placed in a protective sleeve.
Aluminium-aluminium perforated unit-dose blister packs in cartons containing 10x1 film-coated tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
54, rue La Boétie
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 26 August 2013
10. Date of revision of the text
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.
FDA的批准是建立在TEMSO（Teriflunomide多发性硬化症口服）试验的疗效数据的基础之上的。在TEMSO历时两年的第三期临床试验中，与安慰剂相比，Aubagio 14 mg剂量显著的减少了复发型多发性硬化症患者的年复发率（p=0.0005），延缓了残疾进展（p=0.0279）。Aubagio 7 mg剂量显著减少了患者的年复发率（p=0.0002）。