In CKD patients receiving dialysis who were administered Mimpara, approximately 30% of patients had at least one serum calcium value less than 7.5 mg/dl (1.9 mmol/l).
Cinacalcet is not indicated for CKD patients not on dialysis. Investigational studies have shown that CKD patients not on dialysis treated with cinacalcet have an increased risk for hypocalcaemia (serum calcium levels < 8.4 mg/dl [2.1 mmol/l]) compared with cinacalcet-treated CKD patients on dialysis, which may be due to lower baseline calcium levels and/or the presence of residual kidney function.
In clinical studies seizures were observed in 1.4% of Mimpara treated patients and 0.7% of placebo-treated patients. While the basis for the reported difference in seizure rate is not clear, the threshold for seizures is lowered by significant reductions in serum calcium levels.
Hypotension and/or worsening heart failure
In post-marketing safety surveillance, isolated, idiosyncratic cases of hypotension and/or worsening heart failure have been reported in patients with impaired cardiac function, in which a causal relationship to cinacalcet could not be completely excluded and may be mediated by reductions in serum calcium levels. Clinical trial data showed hypotension occurred in 7% of cinacalcet-treated patients, 12% of placebo-treated patients, and heart failure occurred in 2% of patients receiving cinacalcet or placebo.
Adynamic bone disease may develop if PTH levels are chronically suppressed below approximately 1.5 times the upper limit of normal with the iPTH assay. If PTH levels decrease below the recommended target range in patients treated with Mimpara, the dose of Mimpara and/or vitamin D sterols should be reduced or therapy discontinued.
Testosterone levels are often below the normal range in patients with end-stage renal disease. In a clinical study of ESRD patients on dialysis, free testosterone levels decreased by a median of 31.3% in the Mimpara-treated patients and by 16.3% in the placebo-treated patients after 6 months of treatment. An open-label extension of this study showed no further reductions in free and total testosterone concentrations over a period of 3 years in Mimpara-treated patients. The clinical significance of these reductions in serum testosterone is unknown.
Due to the potential for 2 to 4 fold higher plasma levels of cinacalcet in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classification), Mimpara should be used with caution in these patients and treatment should be closely monitored (see sections 4.2 and 5.2).
Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Effect of other medications on cinacalcet
Cinacalcet is metabolised in part by the enzyme CYP3A4. Co-administration of 200 mg bid ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, caused an approximate 2-fold increase in cinacalcet levels. Dose adjustment of Mimpara may be required if a patient receiving Mimpara initiates or discontinues therapy with a strong inhibitor (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, telithromycin, voriconazole, ritonavir) or inducer (eg rifampicin) of this enzyme (see section 4.4).
In vitro data indicate that cinacalcet is in part metabolised by CYP1A2. Smoking induces CYP1A2; the clearance of cinacalcet was observed to be 36-38% higher in smokers than non-smokers. The effect of CYP1A2 inhibitors (e.g. fluvoxamine, ciprofloxacin) on cinacalcet plasma levels has not been studied. Dose adjustment may be necessary if a patient starts or stops smoking or when concomitant treatment with strong CYP1A2 inhibitors is initiated or discontinued.
Calcium carbonate: Co-administration of calcium carbonate (single 1,500 mg dose) did not alter the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet.
Sevelamer: Co-administration of sevelamer (2400 mg tid) did not affect the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet.
Pantoprazole: Co-administration of pantoprazole (80 mg od) did not alter the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet.
Effect of cinacalcet on other medications
Medicinal products metabolised by the enzyme P450 2D6 (CYP2D6): Cinacalcet is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6. Dose adjustments of concomitant medicinal products may be required when Mimpara is administered with individually titrated, narrow therapeutic index substances that are predominantly metabolised by CYP2D6 (e.g., flecainide, propafenone, metoprolol, desipramine, nortriptyline, clomipramine) (see section 4.4).
Desipramine: Concurrent administration of 90 mg cinacalcet once daily with 50 mg desipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant metabolised primarily by CYP2D6, significantly increased desipramine exposure 3.6-fold (90 % CI 3.0, 4.4) in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers.
Warfarin: Multiple oral doses of cinacalcet did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics (as measured by prothrombin time and clotting factor VII) of warfarin.
The lack of effect of cinacalcet on the pharmacokinetics of R-and S-warfarin and the absence of auto-induction upon multiple dosing in patients indicates that cinacalcet is not an inducer of CYP3A4, CYP1A2 or CYP2C9 in humans.
Midazolam: Co-administration of cinacalcet (90 mg) with orally administered midazolam (2 mg), a CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 substrate, did not alter the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. These data suggest that cinacalcet would not affect the pharmacokinetics of those classes of medicines that are metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, such as certain immunosuppressants, including cyclosporine and tacrolimus.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
There are no clinical data from the use of cinacalcet in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, parturition or postnatal development. No embryonal/foetal toxicities were seen in studies in pregnant rats and rabbits with the exception of decreased foetal body weights in rats at doses associated with maternal toxicities (see section 5.3). Mimpara should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.
It is not known whether cinacalcet is excreted in human milk. Cinacalcet is excreted in the milk of lactating rats with a high milk to plasma ratio. Following careful benefit/risk assessment, a decision should be made to discontinue either breast-feeding or treatment with Mimpara.
There are no clinical data relating to the effect of cinacalcet on fertility. There were no effects on fertility in animal studies.
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, certain adverse reactions may affect the ability to drive and use machines (see section 4.8).
4.8 Undesirable effects
a) Summary of the safety profile
Secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism
Based on available data from patients receiving cinacalcet in placebo controlled studies and single-arm studies the most commonly reported adverse reactions were nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature in the majority of patients. Discontinuation of therapy as a result of undesirable effects was mainly due to nausea and vomiting.
b) Tabulated list of adverse reactions
Adverse reactions, considered at least possibly attributable to cinacalcet treatment in the placebo controlled studies and single-arm studies based on best-evidence assessment of causality are listed below using the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000).
Incidence of adverse reactions from controlled clinical studies and post-marketing experience are:
†see section 4.4
*see section c
c) Description of selected adverse reactions
Hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema and urticaria have been identified during post-marketing use of Mimpara. The frequencies of the individual preferred terms including angioedema and urticaria cannot be estimated from available data.
Hypotension and/or worsening heart failure
There have been reports of idiosyncratic cases of hypotension and/or worsening heart failure in cinacalcet-treated patients with impaired cardiac function in post-marketing safety surveillance, the frequencies of which cannot be estimated from available data.
QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia secondary to hypocalcaemia
QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia secondary to hypocalcaemia have been identified during post-marketing use of Mimpara, the frequencies of which cannot be estimated from available data (see section 4.4).
d) Paediatric population
Mimpara is not indicated for use in paediatric patients. The safety and efficacy of Mimpara in the paediatric population have not been established. A fatal outcome was reported in a paediatric clinical trial patient with severe hypocalcaemia (see section 4.4).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via:
Yellow Card Scheme
Irish Medicines Board
Kevin O'Malley House
IRL - Dublin 2
Tel: +353 1 6764971
Fax: +353 1 6762517
Doses titrated up to 300 mg once daily have been safely administered to patients receiving dialysis.
Overdose of Mimpara may lead to hypocalcaemia. In the event of overdose, patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of hypocalcaemia, and treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Since cinacalcet is highly protein-bound, haemodialysis is not an effective treatment for overdose.
5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Calcium homeostasis, anti-parathyroid agents. ATC code: H05BX01.
Mechanism of action
The calcium sensing receptor on the surface of the chief cell of the parathyroid gland is the principal regulator of PTH secretion. Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent which directly lowers PTH levels by increasing the sensitivity of the calcium sensing receptor to extracellular calcium. The reduction in PTH is associated with a concomitant decrease in serum calcium levels.
Reductions in PTH levels correlate with cinacalcet concentration.
After steady state is reached, serum calcium concentrations remain constant over the dosing interval.
Three, 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were conducted in ESRD patients with uncontrolled secondary HPT receiving dialysis (n=1136). Demographic and baseline characteristics were representative of the dialysis patient population with secondary HPT. Mean baseline iPTH concentrations across the 3 studies were 733 and 683 pg/ml (77.8 and 72.4 pmol/l) for the cinacalcet and placebo groups, respectively. 66% of patients were receiving vitamin D sterols at study entry, and > 90% were receiving phosphate binders. Significant reductions in iPTH, serum calcium-phosphorus product (Ca x P), calcium, and phosphorus were observed in the cinacalcet treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients receiving standard of care, and the results were consistent across the 3 studies. In each of the studies, the primary endpoint (proportion of patients with an iPTH ≤ 250 pg/ml (≤ 26.5 pmol/l)) was achieved by 41%, 46%, and 35% of patients receiving cinacalcet, compared with 4%, 7%, and 6% of patients receiving placebo. Approximately 60% of cinacalcet-treated patients achieved a ≥ 30% reduction in iPTH levels, and this effect was consistent across the spectrum of baseline iPTH levels. The mean reductions in serum Ca x P, calcium, and phosphorus were 14%, 7% and 8%, respectively.
Reductions in iPTH and Ca x P were maintained for up to 12 months of treatment. Cinacalcet decreased iPTH and Ca x P, calcium and phosphorus levels regardless of baseline iPTH or Ca x P level, dialysis modality (PD versus HD), duration of dialysis, and whether or not vitamin D sterols were administered.
Reductions in PTH were associated with non-significant reductions of bone metabolism markers (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide, bone turnover and bone fibrosis). In post-hoc analyses of pooled data from 6 and 12 months clinical studies, Kaplan-Meier estimates of bone fracture and parathyroidectomy were lower in the cinacalcet group compared with the control group.
Investigational studies in patients with CKD and secondary HPT not undergoing dialysis indicated that cinacalcet reduced PTH levels to a similar extent as in patients with ESRD and secondary HPT receiving dialysis. However, efficacy, safety, optimal doses and treatment targets have not been established in treatment of predialytic renal failure patients. These studies show that CKD patients not undergoing dialysis treated with cinacalcet have an increased risk for hypocalcaemia compared with cinacalcet-treated ESRD patients receiving dialysis, which may be due to lower baseline calcium levels and/or the presence of residual kidney function.
EVOLVE (EValuation Of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events) was a randomized, double-blind clinical study evaluating cinacalcet HCl vs. placebo for the reduction of the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in 3,883 patients with secondary HPT and CKD receiving dialysis. The study did not meet its primary objective of demonstrating a reduction in risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure or peripheral vascular event (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.02; p = 0.112). After adjusting for baseline characteristics in a secondary analysis, the HR for the primary composite endpoint was 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.97.
Parathyroid carcinoma and Primary Hyperparathyroidism
In a key study,46 patients (29 with parathyroid carcinoma and 17 with primary HPT (who had failed or had contraindications to parathyroidectomy) received cinacalcet for up to 3 years (mean of 328 days for patients with parathyroid carcinoma and mean of 347 days for patients with primary HPT). Cinacalcet was administered at doses ranging from 30 mg twice daily to 90 mg four times daily. The primary endpoint of the study was a reduction of serum calcium of ≥ 1 mg/dl (≥ 0.25 mmol/l). In patients with parathyroid carcinoma, mean serum calcium declined from 14.1 mg/dl to 12.4 mg/dl (3.5 mmol/l to 3.1 mmol/l), while in patients with primary HPT, serum calcium levels declined from 12.7 mg/dl to 10.4 mg/dl (3.2 mmol/l to 2.6 mmol/l). Eighteen of 29 patients (62 %) with parathyroid carcinoma and 15 of 17 subjects (88 %) with primary HPT achieved a reduction in serum calcium of ≥ 1 mg/dl (≥ 0.25 mmol/l).
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
After oral administration of Mimpara, maximum plasma cinacalcet concentration is achieved in approximately 2 to 6 hours. Based on between-study comparisons, the absolute bioavailability of cinacalcet in fasted subjects has been estimated to be about 20-25%. Administration of Mimpara with food results in an approximate 50 – 80% increase in cinacalcet bioavailability. Increases in plasma cinacalcet concentration are similar, regardless of the fat content of the meal.
At doses above 200 mg, the absorption was saturated probably due to poor solubility.
The volume of distribution is high (approximately 1000 litres), indicating extensive distribution. Cinacalcet is approximately 97% bound to plasma proteins and distributes minimally into red blood cells.
After absorption, cinacalcet concentrations decline in a biphasic fashion with an initial half-life of approximately 6 hours and a terminal half-life of 30 to 40 hours. Steady state levels of cinacalcet are achieved within 7 days with minimal accumulation. The pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet does not change over time.
Cinacalcet is metabolised by multiple enzymes, predominantly CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 (the contribution of CYP1A2 has not been characterised clinically). The major circulating metabolites are inactive.
Based on in vitro data, cinacalcet is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6, but is neither an inhibitor of other CYP enzymes at concentrations achieved clinically, including CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 nor an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.
After administration of a 75 mg radiolabelled dose to healthy volunteers, cinacalcet was rapidly and extensively metabolised by oxidation followed by conjugation. Renal excretion of metabolites was the prevalent route of elimination of radioactivity. Approximately 80% of the dose was recovered in the urine and 15% in the faeces.
The AUC and Cmax of cinacalcet increase approximately linearly over the dose range of 30 to 180 mg once daily.
Soon after dosing, PTH begins to decrease until a nadir at approximately 2 to 6 hours post-dose, corresponding with cinacalcet Cmax. Thereafter, as cinacalcet levels begin to decline, PTH levels increase until 12 hours post-dose, and then PTH suppression remains approximately constant to the end of the once-daily dosing interval. PTH levels in Mimpara clinical trials were measured at the end of the dosing interval.
Elderly: There are no clinically relevant differences due to age in the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet.
Renal Insufficiency: The pharmacokinetic profile of cinacalcet in patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal insufficiency, and those on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is comparable to that in healthy volunteers.
Hepatic Insufficiency: Mild hepatic impairment did not notably affect the pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet. Compared to subjects with normal liver function, average AUC of cinacalcet was approximately 2-fold higher in subjects with moderate impairment and approximately 4-fold higher in subjects with severe impairment. The mean half-life of cinacalcet is prolonged by 33% and 70% in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. Protein binding of cinacalcet is not affected by impaired hepatic function. Because doses are titrated for each subject based on safety and efficacy parameters, no additional dose adjustment is necessary for subjects with hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).
Gender: Clearance of cinacalcet may be lower in women than in men. Because doses are titrated for each subject, no additional dose adjustment is necessary based on gender.
Paediatric Population: The pharmacokinetics of cinacalcet have been studied in 12 paediatric patients (6-17 years) with CKD receiving dialysis following a single, oral, 15 mg dose. Mean AUC and Cmax values (23.5 (range 7.22 to 77.2) ng*hr/ml and 7.26 (range 1.80 to 17.4) ng/ml, respectively) were within approximately 30% of the means for AUC and Cmax values observed in a single study in healthy adults following a single 30 mg dose (33.6 (range 4.75 to 66.9) ng*hr/ml and 5.42 (range 1.41 to 12.7) ng/ml, respectively). Due to the limited data in paediatric subjects, the potential for higher exposures in the lighter/younger relative to heavier/older paediatric subjects for a given dose of cinacalcet cannot be excluded. The pharmacokinetics in paediatric subjects after multiple doses has not been studied.
Smoking: Clearance of cinacalcet is higher in smokers than in non-smokers, likely due to induction of CYP1A2-mediated metabolism. If a patient stops or starts smoking, cinacalcet plasma levels may change and dose adjustment may be necessary.
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Cinacalcet was not teratogenic in rabbits when given at a dose of 0.4 times, on an AUC basis, the maximum human dose for secondary HPT (180 mg daily). The non-teratogenic dose in rats was 4.4 times, on an AUC basis, the maximum dose for secondary HPT. There were no effects on fertility in males or females at exposures up to 4 times a human dose of 180 mg/day (safety margins in the small population of patients administered a maximum clinical dose of 360 mg daily would be approximately half those given above).
In pregnant rats, there were slight decreases in body weight and food consumption at the highest dose. Decreased foetal weights were seen in rats at doses where dams had severe hypocalcaemia. Cinacalcet has been shown to cross the placental barrier in rabbits.
Cinacalcet did not show any genotoxic or carcinogenic potential. Safety margins from the toxicology studies are small due to the dose-limiting hypocalcaemia observed in the animal models. Cataracts and lens opacities were observed in the repeat dose rodent toxicology and carcinogenicity studies, but were not observed in dogs or monkeys or in clinical studies where cataract formation was monitored. Cataracts are known to occur in rodents as a result of hypocalcaemia.
In in vitro studies, IC50 values for the serotonin transporter and KATP channels were found to be 7 and 12 fold greater, respectively, than the EC50 for the calcium-sensing receptor obtained under the same experimental conditions. The clinical relevance is unknown, however, the potential for cinacalcet to act on these secondary targets cannot be fully excluded.
6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients
Pre-gelatinised starch (maize)
Colloidal anhydrous silica
Opadry II green:
(Lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide (E171), glycerol triacetate, FD&C Blue (E132), iron oxide yellow (E172))
6.3 Shelf life
Blister: 5 years.
Bottle: 5 years.
6.4 Special precautions for storage
This medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
6.5 Nature and contents of container
Aclar/PVC/PVAc/Aluminium blister containing 14 tablets. Pack sizes of 1 blister (14 tablets), 2 blisters (28 tablets), 6 blisters (84 tablets) per carton.
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) bottle with a cotton coil, and a child-resistant polypropylene cap with an induction seal, packed into a carton. Each bottle contains 30 tablets.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling
No special requirements for disposal.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7. Marketing authorisation holder
Amgen Europe B.V.
4817 ZK Breda
8. Marketing authorisation number(s)
EU/1/04/292/001 – carton with 14 tablets
EU/1/04/292/002 – carton with 28 tablets
EU/1/04/292/003 – carton with 84 tablets
EU/1/04/292/004 – bottle with 30 tablets
EU/1/04/292/005 – carton with 14 tablets
EU/1/04/292/006 – carton with 28 tablets
EU/1/04/292/007 – carton with 84 tablets
EU/1/04/292/008 – bottle with 30 tablets
EU/1/04/292/009 – carton with 14 tablets
EU/1/04/292/010 – carton with 28 tablets
EU/1/04/292/011 – carton with 84 tablets
EU/1/04/292/012 – bottle with 30 tablets
9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation
Date of first authorisation: 22 October 2004
Date of latest renewal: 23 September 2009
10. Date of revision of the text
19 September 2013
Detailed information on this medicinal product is available on the website of the European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu.
MIMPARA 30mg/tablet 28tablets/bottle
MIMPARA 30毫克/片 28片/瓶
MIMPARA 60mg/tablet 28tablets/bottle
MIMPARA 60毫克/片 28片/盒
MIMPARA 90mg/tablet 28tablets/bottle
MIMPARA 90毫克/片 28片/盒
盐酸西那卡塞片|MIMPARA（Cinacalcet Hydrochloride tablet）
简介： 部分中文Mimpara处方资料（仅供参考）【药品名称】通用名称：盐酸西那卡塞片商品名称：Sensipar，Mimpara，Regpara 英文名称：Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Tablet【成份】化学名称：N-((1R)-1-(1-萘基)乙 ...