英文药名: Razadyne(Galantamine Tablets/extended-release capsules)
Razadyne(galantamine hydrobromide)是一种胆碱酯酶抑制剂。 它的作用是增加大脑中某种物质（乙酰胆碱）的含量，这可能有助于减轻阿尔茨海默病患者痴呆症的症状。
批准日期：2018年5月 公司：Janssen Pharmaceuticals
RAZADYNE ER（加兰他敏氢溴 galantamine hydrobromide）缓释胶囊，用于口服
RAZADYNE（盐酸加兰他敏氢溴 galantamine hydrobromide）片剂，用于口服
8毫克白色不透明，4号硬明胶胶囊，铭文为“GAL 8” - 30瓶NDC 50458-387-30
16毫克粉红色不透明，2号硬明胶胶囊，铭文为“GAL 16” -30瓶NDC 50458-388-30
24毫克焦糖不透明，1号硬明胶胶囊，铭文为“GAL 24” -30瓶NDC 50458-389-30
4毫克圆形双凸面，一面印有“JANSSEN”的白色片剂，另一面印有“G 4” - 60瓶NDC 50458-396-60
8毫克圆形双凸面，粉色片一面印有“JANSSEN”，另一面印有“G 8” - 60瓶NDC 50458-397-60
12毫克圆形双凸面，橙棕色片，一面印有“JANSSEN”，另一面印有“G 12” - 60瓶NDC 50458-398-60
RAZADYNE TAB 8MG 60 GALANTAMINE HBR JOM PHARMACEUTICAL 50458-0397-60
RAZADYNE TAB 12MG 60 GALANTAMINE HBR JOM PHARMACEUTICAL 50458-0398-60
RAZADYNE ER CAP 24MG 30 GALANTAMINE HBR JOM PHARMACEUTICAL 50458-0389-30
(galantamine HBr) Extended-Release Capsules
(galantamine HBr) Tablets and Oral Solution
RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE® (galantamine hydrobromide) is galantamine hydrobromide, a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Galantamine hydrobromide is known chemically as (4aS,6R,8aS)-4a,5,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-3-methoxy-11-methyl-6H-benzofuro[3a,3,2-ef] benzazepin-6-ol hydrobromide. It has an empirical formula of C17H21NO3 •HBr and a molecular weight of 368.27. Galantamine hydrobromide is a white to almost white powder and is sparingly soluble in water.
RAZADYNE® ER is available in opaque hard gelatin extended-release capsules of 8 mg (white), 16 mg (pink), and 24 mg (caramel) containing galantamine hydrobromide, equivalent to respectively 8, 16 and 24 mg galantamine base. Inactive ingredients include gelatin, diethyl phthalate, ethylcellulose, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide and sugar spheres (sucrose and starch).The 16 mg capsule also contains red ferric oxide. The 24 mg capsule also contains red ferric oxide and yellow ferric oxide.
RAZADYNE® for oral use is available in circular biconvex film-coated immediate-release tablets of 4 mg (off-white), 8 mg (pink), and 12 mg (orange-brown). Each 4, 8, and 12 mg (base equivalent) tablet contains 5.126, 10.253, and 15.379 mg of galantamine hydrobromide, respectively. Inactive ingredients include colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, propylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide. The 4 mg tablets contain yellow ferric oxide. The 8 mg tablets contain red ferric oxide. The 12 mg tablets contain red ferric oxide and FD&C yellow #6 aluminum lake. RAZADYNE® is also available as a 4 mg/mL oral solution. The inactive ingredients for this solution are methyl parahydroxybenzoate, propyl parahydroxybenzoate, sodium saccharin, sodium hydroxide and purified water.
RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE® (galantamine hydrobromide) is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
RAZADYNE® ER Extended-Release Capsules
The dosage of RAZADYNE® ER (galantamine hydrobromide) Extended-Release Capsules shown to be effective in a controlled clinical trial is 16-24 mg/day.
The recommended starting dose of RAZADYNE® ER is 8 mg/day. The dose should be increased to the initial maintenance dose of 16 mg/day after a minimum of 4 weeks. A further increase to 24 mg/day should be attempted after a minimum of 4 weeks at 16 mg/day. Dose increases should be based upon assessment of clinical benefit and tolerability of the previous dose.
RAZADYNE® ER should be administered once daily in the morning, preferably with food.
Patients currently being treated with RAZADYNE® tablets can convert to RAZADYNE® ER by taking their last dose of RAZADYNE® tablets in the evening and starting RAZADYNE® ER once daily treatment the next morning. Converting from RAZADYNE® to RAZADYNE® ER should occur at the same total daily dose.
RAZADYNE® Immediate-Release Tablets and Oral Solution
The dosage of RAZADYNE® Tablets shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials is 16-32 mg/day given as twice daily dosing. As the dose of 32 mg/day is less well tolerated than lower doses and does not provide increased effectiveness, the recommended dose range is 16-24 mg/day given in a BID regimen. The dose of 24 mg/day did not provide a statistically significant greater clinical benefit than 16 mg/day. It is possible, however, that a daily dose of 24 mg of RAZADYNE® might provide additional benefit for some patients.
The recommended starting dose of RAZADYNE® Tablets and Oral Solution is 4 mg twice a day (8 mg/day). The dose should be increased to the initial maintenance dose of 8 mg twice a day (16 mg/day) after a minimum of 4 weeks. A further increase to 12 mg twice a day (24 mg/day) should be attempted after a minimum of 4 weeks at 8 mg twice a day (16 mg/day). Dose increases should be based upon assessment of clinical benefit and tolerability of the previous dose.
RAZADYNE® Tablets and Oral Solution should be administered twice a day, preferably with morning and evening meals.
Patients and caregivers should be advised to ensure adequate fluid intake during treatment. If therapy has been interrupted for several days or longer, the patient should be restarted at the lowest dose and the dose escalated to the current dose.
Caregivers should be instructed in the correct procedure for administering RAZADYNE® Oral Solution. In addition, they should be informed of the existence of an Instruction Sheet (included with the product) describing how the solution is to be administered. They should be urged to read this sheet prior to administering RAZADYNE® Oral Solution. Caregivers should direct questions about the administration of the solution to either their physician or pharmacist. The abrupt withdrawal of RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE® in those patients who had been receiving doses in the effective range was not associated with an increased frequency of adverse events in comparison with those continuing to receive the same doses of that drug. The beneficial effects of RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE® are lost, however, when the drug is discontinued.
Doses in Special Populations
Galantamine plasma concentrations may be increased in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. In patients with moderately impaired hepatic function (Child-Pugh score of 7-9), the total daily dose should generally not exceed 16 mg/day. The use of RAZADYNE® ER/ RAZADYNE® in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 10-15) is not recommended.
For patients with moderate renal impairment the dose should generally not exceed 16 mg/day. In patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 9 mL/min), the use of RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE® is not recommended.
RAZADYNE® ER (galantamine hydrobromide) Extended-Release Capsules contain white to off-white pellets.
8mg white opaque, size 4 hard gelatin capsules with the inscription "GAL 8."
16 mg pink opaque, size 2 hard gelatin capsules with the inscription "GAL 16."
24 mg caramel opaque, size 1 hard gelatin capsules with the inscription "GAL 24."
The capsules are supplied as follows:
8mg capsules–bottles of 30 NDC 50458-387-30
16mg capsules–bottles of 30 NDC 50458-388-30
24mg capsules–bottles of 30 NDC 50458-389-30
RAZADYNE® Tablets are imprinted "JANSSEN" on one side, and "G" and the strength "4", "8", or "12" on the other.
4 mg off-white tablet: bottles of 60 NDC 50458-396-60
8 mg pink tablet: bottles of 60 NDC 50458-397-60
12 mg orange-brown tablet: bottles of 60 NDC 50458-398-60
RAZADYNE® 4 mg/mL oral solution (NDC 50458-490-10) is a clear colorless solution supplied in 100 mL bottles with a calibrated (in milligrams and milliliters) pipette. The minimum calibrated volume is 0.5 mL, while the maximum calibrated volume is 4 mL.
Storage and Handling
RAZADYNE® ER Extended-Release Capsules should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
RAZADYNE® Tablets should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
RAZADYNE® Oral Solution should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
DO NOT FREEZE.
Keep out of reach of children.
Pre-Marketing Clinical Trial Experience
The specific adverse event data described in this section are based on studies of the immediate-release tablet formulation. In clinical trials, once-daily treatment with RAZADYNE® ER (galantamine hydrobromide) Extended-Release Capsules was well tolerated and adverse events were similar to those seen with RAZADYNE® Tablets.
Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation
In two large scale, placebo-controlled trials of 6 months duration in which patients were titrated weekly from 8 to 16 to 24, and to 32 mg/day, the risk of discontinuation because of an adverse event in the galantamine group exceeded that in the placebo group by about threefold. In contrast, in a 5-month trial with escalation of the dose by 8 mg/day every 4 weeks, the overall risk of discontinuation because of an adverse event was 7%, 7%, and 10% for the placebo, galantamine 16 mg/day, and galantamine 24 mg/day groups, respectively, with gastrointestinal adverse effects the principle reason for discontinuing galantamine.
Adverse Events Reported in Controlled Trials
The reported adverse events in trials using RAZADYNE® (galantamine hydrobromide) Tablets reflect experience gained under closely monitored conditions in a highly selected patient population. In actual practice or in other clinical trials, these frequency estimates may not apply, as the conditions of use, reporting behavior and the types of patients treated may differ.
The majority of these adverse events occurred during the dose-escalation period. In those patients who experienced the most frequent adverse event, nausea, the median duration of the nausea was 5-7 days. Administration of RAZADYNE® with food, the use of anti-emetic medication, and ensuring adequate fluid intake may reduce the impact of these events.
Adverse events occurring with an incidence of at least 2% in RAZADYNE®-treated patients that was either equal to or greater than with placebo treatment were constipation, agitation, confusion, anxiety, hallucination, injury, back pain, peripheral edema, asthenia, chest pain, urinary incontinence, upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, coughing, hypertension, fall, and purpura.
There were no important differences in adverse event rates related to dose or sex. There were too few non-Caucasian patients to assess the effects of race on adverse event rates.
No clinically relevant abnormalities in laboratory values were observed.
Other Adverse Events Observed During Clinical Trials
RAZADYNE® Tablets were administered to 3055 patients with Alzheimer's disease. A total of 2357 patients received galantamine in placebo-controlled trials and 761 patients with Alzheimer's disease received galantamine 24 mg/day, the maximum recommended maintenance dose. About 1000 patients received galantamine for at least one year and approximately 200 patients received galantamine for two years.
To establish the rate of adverse events, data from all patients receiving any dose of galantamine in 8 placebo-controlled trials and 6 open-label extension trials were pooled.The methodology to gather and codify these adverse events was standardized across trials, using WHO terminology. All adverse events occurring in approximately 0.1% are included, except for those already listed elsewhere in labeling, WHO terms too general to be informative, or events unlikely to be drug caused. Events are classified by body system and listed using the following definitions: frequent adverse events - those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events - those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare adverse events - those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. These adverse events are not necessarily related to RAZADYNE® treatment and in most cases were observed at a similar frequency in placebo-treated patients in the controlled studies. Additional adverse events observed in other clinical trials are also included below.
Body As a Whole-General Disorders: Frequent: chest pain, asthenia, fever, malaise
Cardiovascular System Disorders: Infrequent: postural hypotension, hypotension, dependent edema, cardiac failure, myocardial ischemia or infarction
Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders: Infrequent: vertigo, hypertonia, convulsions, involuntary muscle contractions, paresthesia, ataxia, hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, apraxia, aphasia, leg cramps, tinnitus, transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident
Gastrointestinal System Disorders: Frequent: flatulence; Infrequent: gastritis, melena, dysphagia, rectal hemorrhage, dry mouth, saliva increased, diverticulitis, gastroenteritis, hiccup; Rare: esophageal perforation
Heart Rate & Rhythm Disorders: Infrequent: A V block, palpitation, atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and supraventricular tachycardia, QT prolonged, bundle branch block, T-wave inversion, ventricular tachycardia; Rare: severe bradycardia
Metabolic & Nutritional Disorders: Infrequent: hyperglycemia, alkaline phosphatase increased
Platelet, Bleeding & Clotting Disorders: Infrequent: purpura, epistaxis, thrombocytopenia
Psychiatric Disorders: Infrequent: apathy, paroniria, paranoid reaction, libido increased, delirium; Rare: suicidal ideation, suicide
Urinary System Disorders: Frequent: incontinence; Infrequent: hematuria, micturition frequency, cystitis, urinary retention, nocturia, renal calculi
Other adverse events from post-approval controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials and post-marketing experience observed in patients treated with RAZADYNE® include:
Body as a Whole–General Disorders: dehydration (including rare, severe cases leading to renal insufficiency and renal failure)
Psychiatric Disorders: aggression
Gastrointestinal System Disorders: upper and lower GI bleeding, stomach discomfort, abdominal discomfort
Hepatobiliary Disorders: elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis
Metabolic & Nutritional Disorders: hypokalemia
Nervous System Disorders: lethargy, dysgeusia, hypersomnia
Eye Disorders: vision blurred
These adverse events may or may not be causally related to the drug.
(see also CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Drug-Drug Interactions)
Use With Anticholinergics
RAZADYNE® has the potential to interfere with the activity of anticholinergic medications.
Use With Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors
A synergistic effect is expected when cholinesterase inhibitors are given concurrently with succinylcholine, other cholinesterase inhibitors, similar neuromuscular blocking agents or cholinergic agonists such as bethanechol.
Effect of Other Drugs on Galantamine
CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of galantamine. CYP3A4 mediates the formation of galantamine-N-oxide; CYP2D6 leads to the formation of O-desmethyl-galantamine. Because galantamine is also glucuronidated and excreted unchanged, no single pathway appears predominant.
Cimetidine and Ranitidine: Galantamine was administered as a single dose of 4 mg on day 2 of a 3-day treatment with either cimetidine (800 mg daily) or ranitidine (300 mg daily). Cimetidine increased the bioavailability of galantamine by approximately 16%. Ranitidine had no effect on the PK of galantamine.
Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of CYP2D6, at a dose of 200 mg BID for 4 days, increased the AUC of galantamine by 30%.
Erythromycin: Erythromycin, a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 at a dose of 500 mg QID for 4 days, affected the AUC of galantamine minimally (10% increase).
Paroxetine: Paroxetine, a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6, at 20 mg/day for 16 days, increased the oral bioavailability of galantamine by about 40%.
Memantine: Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, at a dose of 10 mg BID, had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of galantamine (16 mg/day) at steady state.
Effect of Galantamine on Other Drugs
Galantamine did not inhibit the metabolic pathways catalyzed by CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP4A, CYP2C, CYP2D6 or CYP2E1. This indicates that the inhibitory potential of galantamine towards the major forms of cytochrome P450 is very low.
Warfarin: Galantamine at 24 mg/day had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-warfarin (25 mg single dose) or on the prothrombin time. The protein binding of warfarin was unaffected by galantamine.
Digoxin: Galantamine at 24 mg/day had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.375 mg once daily) when they were coadministered. In this study, however, one healthy subject was hospitalized for 2nd and 3rd degree heart block and bradycardia.
Galantamine, as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate the neuromuscular blocking effects of succinylcholine-type and similar neuromuscular blocking agents during anesthesia.
Because of their pharmacological action, cholinesterase inhibitors have vagotonic effects on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, leading to bradycardia and AV block. These actions may be particularly important to patients with supraventricular cardiac conduction disorders or to patients taking other drugs concomitantly that significantly slow heart rate. Postmarketing surveillance of marketed anticholinesterase inhibitors has shown, however, that bradycardia and all types of heart block have been reported in patients both with and without known underlying cardiac conduction abnormalities. Therefore all patients should be considered at risk for adverse effects on cardiac conduction.
In randomized controlled trials, bradycardia was reported more frequently in galantamine-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients, but was rarely severe and rarely led to treatment discontinuation. The overall frequency of this event was 2-3% for galantamine doses up to 24 mg/day compared with < 1% for placebo. No increased incidence of heart block was observed at the recommended doses.
Patients treated with galantamine up to 24 mg/day using the recommended dosing schedule showed a dose-related increase in risk of syncope (placebo 0.7% [2/286]; 4 mg BID 0.4% [3/692]; 8 mg BID 1.3% [7/552]; 12 mg BID 2.2% [6/273]).
Through their primary action, cholinomimetics may be expected to increase gastric acid secretion due to increased cholinergic activity. Therefore, patients should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, especially those with an increased risk for developing ulcers, e.g., those with a history of ulcer disease or patients using concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Clinical studies of RAZADYNE® (galantamine hydrobromide) have shown no increase, relative to placebo, in the incidence of either peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.
RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE®, as a predictable consequence of its pharmacological properties, has been shown to produce nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weight loss (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Although this was not observed in clinical trials with RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE®, cholinomimetics may cause bladder outflow obstruction.
Seizures: Cholinesterase inhibitors are believed to have some potential to cause generalized convulsions. However, seizure activity may also be a manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. In clinical trials, there was no increase in the incidence of convulsions with RAZADYNE® ER/RAZADYNE®, compared to placebo.
Because of its cholinomimetic action, galantamine should be prescribed with care to patients with a history of severe asthma or obstructive pulmonary disease.
Included as part of the PATIENT INFORMATION section.
Deaths in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
In two randomized placebo controlled trials of 2 years duration in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a total of 13 subjects on RAZADYNE® (n=1026) and 1 subject on placebo (n=1022) died. The deaths were due to various causes which could be expected in an elderly population; about half of the RAZADYNE® deaths appeared to result from various vascular causes (myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death).
Although the difference in mortality between RAZADYNE® and placebo-treated groups in these two studies was significant, the results are highly discrepant with other studies of RAZADYNE®. Specifically, in these two MCI studies, the mortality rate in the placebo-treated subjects was markedly lower than the rate in placebo-treated patients in trials of RAZADYNE® in Alzheimer's disease or other dementias (0.7 per 1000 person years compared to 22-61 per 1000 person years, respectively). Although the mortality rate in the RAZADYNE®-treated MCI subjects was also lower than that observed in RAZADYNE®-treated patients in Alzheimer's disease and other dementia trials (10.2 per 1000 person years compared to 23-31 per 1000 person years, respectively), the relative difference was much less. When the Alzheimer's disease and other dementia studies were pooled (n=6000), the mortality rate in the placebo group numerically exceeded that in the RAZADYNE® group. Furthermore, in the MCI studies, no subjects in the placebo group died after 6 months, a highly unexpected finding in this population.
Individuals with mild cognitive impairment demonstrate isolated memory impairment greater than expected for their age and education, but do not meet current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
In patients with moderately impaired hepatic function, dose titration should proceed cautiously (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The use of RAZADYNE® in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended.
In patients with moderately impaired renal function, dose titration should proceed cautiously (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). In patients with severely impaired renal function (CLcr < 9 mL/min) the use of RAZADYNE® is not recommended.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility
In a 24-month oral carcinogenicity study in rats, a slight increase in endometrial adenocarcinomas was observed at 10 mg/kg/day (4 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis or 6 times on an exposure [AUC] basis) and 30 mg/kg/day (12 times MRHD on a mg/m2 basis or 19 times on an AUC basis). No increase in neoplastic changes was observed in females at 2.5 mg/kg/day (equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis or 2 times on an AUC basis) or in males up to the highest dose tested of 30 mg/kg/day (12 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 and AUC basis).
Galantamine was not carcinogenic in a 6-month oral carcinogenicity study in transgenic (P 53-deficient) mice up to 20 mg/kg/day, or in a 24-month oral carcinogenicity study in male and female mice up to 10 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis and equivalent on an AUC basis).
Galantamine produced no evidence of genotoxic potential when evaluated in the in vitro Ames S. typhimurium or E. coli reverse mutation assay, in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, in vivo micronucleus test in mice, or in vitro chromosome aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. No impairment of fertility was seen in rats given up to 16 mg/kg/day (7 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) for 14 days prior to mating in females and for 60 days prior to mating in males.
Pregnancy Category B: In a study in which rats were dosed from day 14 (females) or day 60 (males) prior to mating through the period of organogenesis, a slightly increased incidence of skeletal variations was observed at doses of 8 mg/kg/day (3 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis) and 16 mg/kg/day. In a study in which pregnant rats were dosed from the beginning of organogenesis through day 21 post-partum, pup weights were decreased at 8 and 16 mg/kg/day, but no adverse effects on other postnatal developmental parameters were seen. The doses causing the above effects in rats produced slight maternal toxicity. No major malformations were caused in rats given up to 16 mg/kg/day. No drug related teratogenic effects were observed in rabbits given up to 40 mg/kg/day (32 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) during the period of organogenesis.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of RAZADYNE® in pregnant women. RAZADYNE® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether galantamine is excreted in human breast milk. RAZADYNE® has no indication for use in nursing mothers.
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials documenting the safety and efficacy of galantamine in any illness occurring in children.Therefore, use of RAZADYNE® in children is not recommended.
Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a poison control center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug.
As in any case of overdose, general supportive measures should be utilized. Signs and symptoms of significant overdosing of galantamine are predicted to be similar to those of overdosing of other cholinomimetics. These effects generally involve the central nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the neuromuscular junction. In addition to muscle weakness or fasciculations, some or all of the following signs of cholinergic crisis may develop: severe nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal cramping, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, collapse and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved.
Tertiary anticholinergics such as atropine may be used as an antidote for RAZADYNE® (galantamine hydrobromide) overdosage. Intravenous atropine sulfate titrated to effect is recommended at an initial dose of 0.5 to 1.0 mg i.v. with subsequent doses based upon clinical response. Atypical responses in blood pressure and heart rate have been reported with other cholinomimetics when coadministered with quaternary anticholinergics. It is not known whether RAZADYNE® and/or its metabolites can be removed by dialysis (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or hemofiltration). Dose-related signs of toxicity in animals included hypoactivity, tremors, clonic convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, chromodacryorrhea, mucoid feces, and dyspnea.
In one postmarketing report, one patient who had been taking 4 mg of galantamine daily for a week inadvertently ingested eight 4 mg tablets (32 mg total) on a single day. Subsequently, she developed bradycardia, QT prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes accompanied by a brief loss of consciousness for which she required hospital treatment. Two additional cases of accidental ingestion of 32 mg (nausea, vomiting, and dry mouth; nausea, vomiting, and substernal chest pain) and one of 40 mg (vomiting), resulted in brief hospitalizations for observation with full recovery. One patient, who was prescribed 24 mg/day and had a history of hallucinations over the previous two years, mistakenly received 24 mg twice daily for 34 days and developed hallucinations requiring hospitalization. Another patient, who was prescribed 16 mg/day of oral solution, inadvertently ingested 160 mg (40 mL) and experienced sweating, vomiting, bradycardia, and near-syncope one hour later, which necessitated hospital treatment. His symptoms resolved within 24 hours.
RAZADYNE®ER/RAZADYNE®(galantamine hydrobromide) is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to galantamine hydrobromide or to any excipients used in the formulation.